# 2.   Find the mean and variance for each of the data.    First n natural numbers.

Mean ($\overline{x}$) of first n natural numbers:

$\overline{x} = \frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^{n}x_i = \frac{\frac{n(n+1)}{2}}{n} = \frac{n+1}{2}$

We know, Variance$\sigma^2 = \frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^{n}(x_i - \overline{x})^2$

$\sigma^2 = \frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^{n}\left (x_i - \frac{n+1}{2} \right )^2$

We know that $(a-b)^2 = a^2 - 2ab + b^2$

$\\ \therefore n\sigma^2 = \sum_{i=1}^{n}x_i^2 + \sum_{i=1}^{n}(\frac{n+1}{2})^2 - 2\sum_{i=1}^{n}x_i\frac{n+1}{2} \\ = \frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6} + \frac{(n+1)^2}{4}\times n - 2.\frac{(n+1)}{2}.\frac{n(n+1)}{2}$

$\\ \implies \sigma^2 = \frac{(n+1)(2n+1)}{6} + \frac{(n+1)^2}{4} - \frac{(n+1)^2}{2}$

$\\ = \frac{(n+1)(2n+1)}{6} - \frac{(n+1)^2}{4} \\ = (n+1)\left [\frac{4n+2 - 3n -3}{12} \right ] \\ = (n+1).\frac{(n-1)}{12} \\ = \frac{n^2-1}{12}$

Hence, Mean = $\frac{n+1}{2}$ and Variance = $\frac{n^2-1}{12}$

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