Double circulation is a process during which blood passes twice through the heart during one complete cycle. This type of circulation is found in amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. However, it is more prominent in birds and mammals as in them the heart is completely divided into four chambers —
the right atrium,
the right ventricle,
the left atrium, and
the left ventricle.
The movement of blood in an organism is divided into two parts:
(i) Systemic circulation
(ii) Pulmonary circulation
Systemic circulation involves the movement of oxygenated blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the aorta. It is then carried by the blood through a network of arteries, arterioles, and capillaries to the tissues. From the tissues, the deoxygenated blood is collected by the venules, veins, and vena cava, and is emptied into the left auricle. Pulmonary circulation involves the movement of deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the ulmon arte which then carries blood to the lungs for oxygenation.
Significance of double circulation: The separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood allows a more efficient supply of oxygen to the body cells. Blood is circulated to the body tissues through systemic circulation and to the lungs through the pulmonary circulation.