(a) What is an ecological succession ?

(b) Differentiate between primary and secondary succession. Why is secondary succession faster than primary succession ? Explain with suitable examples.

(c) What are pioneer species ? Give examples of pioneer species in Xerarch and Hydrarch successions respectively. 

 

 
 
 
 
 

Answers (1)

a) Ecological succession is the gradual and impartially predictable change in the species composition of a particular given area.

b) 

Primary succession

Secondary succession

1. The area where no living organisms ever existed

1. Areas that somehow lost all the living organisms that existed

2. bare rock

2. farmland

3. newly created pond

3. flooded field area

Secondary succession is faster than primary succession because some soil or sediment is already present there. For eg. burnt / cut forests

c) Pioneer species are those species that invade a bare area means those species which are the first to colonize a barren environment. 

Xerarch- lichens

Hydrarch- phytoplanktons

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