(a) Write how parasites have evolved with adaptation to co-exist with their hosts in an ecosystem.

(b) Parasites are host specific and tend to co-evolve. How would the parasite respond if the host evolves a certain mechanism to resist or reject the parasite?

 

 

 
 
 
 
 

Answers (1)

a) Loss of unnecessary sense organs and presence of adhesive organs/suckers, loss of the digestive system, high reproductive capacity. 

b) The parasite has to evolve a mechanism to counteract and neutralize them.

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