Explain inert pair effect with suitable example.

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The inert pair effect is the tendency of the two electrons in the outermost atomic s-orbital to remain unshared in compounds of post-transition metals. The term inert pair effect is often used in relation to the increasing stability of oxidation states that are two less than the group valency for the heavier elements of groups 13, 14, 15 and 16. For example, Sn2+ and Sb3+ are the lower oxidation states of the elements are formed because of the inert pair effect.

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