Explain the different types of equilibrium (Net Force=0)?

Answers (1)
  • Types of equilibrium 

           If the net force acting on a particle is zero, it is said to be in equilibrium.

           Means For equilibrium \frac{dU}{dx} = 0

               Equilibrium of particle can be of three types-

  1. Stable equilibrium
  • When a particle is displaced slightly from a position, then a force acting on it brings it back to the initial position, it is said to be in the stable equilibrium position.

  • \frac{d^{2}U}{dx^{2}} = 0 is positive.

           i.e; rate of change of \frac{dU}{dx}  is positive

  • Potential energy is minimum.

  • For example-A marble placed at the bottom of a hemispherical bowl.

  1. Unstable equilibrium

  • When a particle is displaced slightly from a position, then a force acting on it tries to displace the particle further away from the equilibrium position, it is said to be in unstable equilibrium.

  • \frac{d^{2}U}{dx^{2}} is negative

           i.e; rate of change of \frac{dU}{dx}  is negative

  • Potential energy is maximum.

  • For example- A marble balanced on top of a hemispherical bowl.

  1. Neutral equilibrium 

  • When a particle is slightly displaced from a position then it does not experience any force acting on it and continues to be in equilibrium in the displaced position, it is said to be in neutral equilibrium.

  • \frac{d^{2}U}{dx^{2}} = 0

           i.e; the rate of change of \frac{dU}{dx}  is zero.

  • Potential energy is constant.

  • For example- A marble placed on a horizontal table.

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