Explain the formation of a mirage

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S safeer

During summer the air near the ground is hotter. Hotter air is less dense and has a smaller refractive index than cooler air and optical density increases with height (summer). Light from taller objects like tree undergoes total internal reflection near the ground. For a distant observer, light appears to come below the ground and the observer sees an inverted image of the object. This optical illusion is called mirrage

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