#### How many fundamental laws are needed to regulate the merging of different elements for creating chemical compounds?Option: 1 6Option: 2 5Option: 3 4Option: 4 1

Five basic laws are required to govern the combination of elements to form compounds. They are Law of Conservation of Mass, Law of Definite Proportions, Law of Multiple Proportions, Gay Lussac’s Law of Gaseous Volumes, and Avogadro’s Law.

Law of Conservation of Mass: Antoine Lavoisier formulated the Law of Conservation of Mass in 1789 after studying various combustion reactions. This law states that matter cannot be created or destroyed, and the total mass of the reactants in a chemical reaction is always equal to the total mass of the products formed. In simpler terms, the sum of the mass of the reacting mixture and the products formed remains constant.

Law of Definite Proportions : Joseph Proust, a chemist from France, proposed a fundamental principle in chemistry that states the proportion of elements in a compound remains constant regardless of its origin, source, or quantity. This principle asserts that the percentage composition of elements by weight in a given compound will always remain the same.

Law of Multiple Proportions: In 1803, Dalton formulated a law which states that when two elements combine to form multiple compounds, the masses of these elements present in the compounds will be in small whole number ratios. This law is known as the law of multiple proportions. Essentially, it indicates that the ratios of masses of elements in different compounds formed from the same elements can be expressed as simple ratios of small whole numbers.

Gay Lussac’s Law of Gaseous Volumes: Gay Lussac, a French chemist, proposed a law based on his observations, which states that when gases combine or are produced in a chemical reaction, they do so in a simple ratio of volumes, provided that the gases are at the same temperature and pressure. This law is considered another form of the law of definite proportions, with the only difference being that Gay Lussac's Law is expressed in terms of volume, whereas the law of definite proportions is expressed in terms of mass. In essence, Gay Lussac's Law indicates that the ratios of volumes of gases involved in a chemical reaction can be expressed as simple ratios of whole numbers.

Avogadro’s Law: In 1811, Avogadro proposed a law which states that at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain an equal number of molecules. This means that if two gasses occupy the same volume under identical conditions of temperature and pressure, they will have an equal number of molecules. For instance, 2 litres of hydrogen and 2 litres of oxygen at the same temperature and pressure will contain the same number of molecules. This law is also known as Avogadro's hypothesis or Avogadro's law.