13.23 Out of benzene, m–dinitrobenzene and toluene which will undergo nitration most easily and why?
Nitration is occurred by an electrophilic substitution reaction, in which an electron rich species is attacked by an electron deficient molecule known as an electrophile. In nitration is used as an electrophile. Here methyl group is electron donating group and the nitro group is electron withdrawing group. So, benzene ring attached with the group has high electron density and the ring which is attached with the nitro group has least electron density. Hence toluene undergoes nitration most easily.