# Solve for particular solution.    Q12. $x^2dy + (xy + y^2)dx = 0; y =1\ \textup{when}\ x = 1$

M manish

$\frac{dy}{dx}= \frac{-(xy+y^{2})}{x^{2}} = F(x,y)$...............................(i)

$F(\mu x, \mu y)=\frac{-\mu^{2}(xy+(\mu y)^{2})}{(\mu x)^{2}} =\mu ^{0}. F(x,y)$
Hence it is a homogeneous equation

Now, to solve substitute y = vx
Differentiating on both sides wrt $x$
$\frac{dy}{dx}= v +x\frac{dv}{dx}$

Substitute this value in equation (i), we get

$\\=v+\frac{xdv}{dx}= -v- v^{2}\\ =\frac{xdv}{dx}=-v(v+2)\\ =\frac{dv}{v+2}=-\frac{dx}{x}\\ =1/2[\frac{1}{v}-\frac{1}{v+2}]dv=-\frac{dx}{x}$

Integrating on both sides, we get;

$\\=\frac{1}{2}[\log v -\log(v+2)]= -\log x+\log C\\ =\frac{v}{v+2}=(C/x)^{2}$

replace the value of v=y/x

$\frac{x^{2}y}{y+2x}=C^{2}$.............................(ii)

Now y =1 and x = 1

$C = 1/\sqrt{3}$
therefore,

$\frac{x^{2}y}{y+2x}=1/3$

Required solution

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