# 9.22  What causes the temporary and permanent hardness of water ?

Answer- Temporary hardness of water is because of the presence of salts of magnesium and calcium hydrogen carbonates.$(MHCO_{3})$ [ M = Mg,Ca]. Permanent hardness is due to the presence of soluble salts of magnesium and calcium in the form of chlorids and sulphates in water. e.g, $MCl_{2}/MSO_{4}$

[M = Mg and Ca]

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