(a) Differentiate between the random velocity and the drift velocity of electrons in an electrical conductor. Give their order of magnitudes.

(b) A conductor of uniform cross-sectional area is connected across a dc source of variable voltage. Draw a graph showing variation of drift velocity of electrons (vd ) as a function of current density (J) in it.

 

 

 
 
 
 
 

Answers (1)

a) Random velocity: The velocity acquired by the free electrons in the absence of
electric field. Average random velocity=0

Drift velocity: The average velocity acquired by the free electrons in presence of the electric field. Average drift velocity is non zero

Drift speed is nearly 10^{-5} times smaller than random velocity

b)

 

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