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  Refractive index -   - wherein speed of light in vacuum. speed of light in medium.     Young Double Slit Experiment - - wherein Distance of a point on screen from central maxima Path difference at that point   Fringe Width in a medium - - wherein Since wavelength in a medium become       Angular width = and      
Fruit and leaf drop at early stages can be prevented by the application of Solution: Auxin delay abscission of leaves and fruits at early stages. Whenever leaf or fruit fall occurs, the organ concerned stops producing auxin. Auxins were first isolated from human urine. It is produced by growing tips of root and stem. It helps in cell division and differentiation. It prevents fruit and leaf drop...
There are 12 pairs of nerves found in reptiles, birds, humans, and other mammals. There are 10 pairs of cranial nerves in fishes and amphibians.
There are 12 pairs of nerves found in reptiles, birds, humans, and other mammals. There are 10 pairs of cranial nerves in fishes and amphibians. 
The P wave is the first positive deflection on the ECG and represents atrial depolarization. It represents atrial depolarization. Duration: < 0.12 s 
Erythropoietin is a hormone that plays an important role in making red blood cells. The kidneys and liver produce erythropoietin when oxygen levels in the cells are low. The hormone then stimulates the bone marrow, which, in turn, makes more red blood cells.
Blue-white screening allows detecting rapidly the recombinant bacteria in vector-based cloning experiments. The blue-white screening method works by disrupting the α-complementation process. The plasmid carries within the lacZ α sequence an internal multiple cloning site or MCS.  This MCS can be cut by restriction enzymes so that the foreign DNA may be inserted, thereby disrupting the gene and...
Polyploidy is the heritable condition of possessing more than two complete sets of chromosomes. Polyploids are common among plants, as well as among certain groups of fish and amphibians. For instance, some salamanders, frogs, and leeches are polyploids.
Typhoid is a systematic bacterial infection caused by Salmonella typhi usually through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. The diagnosis of typhoid can be done by the Widal test. Plasmodium vivax causes malaria, while Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for causing Pneumonia.  UTI test is used for the diagnose of urinary tract infectious while the anthrone test is a method for...
The gastric chief cell (also known as a zymogenic cell or peptic cell) is a cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and chymosin. Pepsinogen is activated into the digestive enzyme pepsin when it comes in contact with acid produced by gastric parietal cells. Gastric pit cells are replaced every 2–4 days.
Fibrous root       Adventitious root The primary root is replaced by a large number of roots at its base of the stem to constitute the Fibrous roots. The roots that arise from any part of the plant apart from radicle are called adventitious roots. The examples of fibrous roots include wheat, rice, etc Examples of plants with adventitious roots include grass, banyan tree, maize, etc.  
The digestion of starch begins with salivary amylase, but this activity is much less important than that of pancreatic amylase in the small intestine. Amylase hydrolyzes starch, with the primary end products being maltose, maltotriose, and a -dextrins, although some glucose is also produced.
Celiac disease is a digestive problem that hurts your small intestine. It stops your body from taking in nutrients from food. You may have celiac disease if you are sensitive to gluten. Gluten is a kind of protein found in wheat, rye, barley, and sometimes in small amounts in mixed oats. When you have celiac disease and you eat foods with gluten, your body has a reaction that is not normal. The...
The deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme adenosine deaminase is associated with severe B and T-cell dysfunction. In order to investigate the ADA molecule, gene therapy using E.coli, cDNA clones encoding ADA gene sequences are obtained. So, the correct option is 'E.coli'.
Bacillus thuringiensis forms protein crystals during a particular phase of their growth. These crystals contain a toxic insecticidal protein. These protein exist as inactive protoxins but once an insect ingests the inactive toxin, it is converted into an active form of toxin due to alkaline pH of the gut which solubilizes the crystals. The activated toxin binds to the surface of midgut...
Nostoc is a prokaryote. Prokaryotic cells lack membrane-bound organelles and well-organized nucleus, that is nuclear envelope is absent in these cells. The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, bilayer membranes that surround the nucleus, and in eukaryotic cells it encases the genetic material.
The efferent ductules (ductuli efferentes) are a series of parallel thin, delicate tubules that connect the rete testis to a single tube, the epididymis. The efferent ducts are often referred to as “conduits” because sperm travel so rapidly through these tubules into the epididymis.