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Pinus seed cannot germinate and establish without fungal associaton. This is because:

  • Option 1)

    its embryo is immature

  • Option 2)

    it has obligate association with mycorrhizae

  • Option 3)

    it has a very hard seed coat

  • Option 4)

    its seed contain inhibitors that prevents germinatiom.

     

Pinus plant is devoid of root hair. So it has difficulty in absorbing water from the soil. A seed can only germinate after absorbing adequate amount of water. Hence, by the symbiotic association with fungi, pinus seed can germinate and grow. So the answer is option 2

 

Which of these following methods is the most suitable for disposal of nuclear waste ?

  • Option 1)

    Shoot the waste into space.

  • Option 2)

    Bury the waste under Antarctic ice-cover

  • Option 3)

    Dump the waste within rocks under deep ocean

  • Option 4)

    Bury the waste within rocks deep below the Earth's surface

  Radioactive pollution - This pollution occurs through radiations. Radiations are of two types: - wherein (i) Non ionising radiations: UV rays, IR rays, etc. UV rays cause skin burning, IR rays increases atmospheric temperature and leads to the green house effect. (ii) Ionising radiation: X – rays, x-rays, beta-rays, gamma-rays cause genetic injury on mutation.       Nuclear or radioactive...

Polyblend, a fine powder of recycled modified plastic, has proved to be a good material for:

 

  • Option 1)

    making plastic sacks

  • Option 2)

    use as a fertilizer

  • Option 3)

    construction of roads

  • Option 4)

    making tubes and pipes

Polyblend is a mixture of polymers specifically recycled modified plastic. It is used in the construction of a roads as it produces shrink and crash resistant layers.  Option 1)making plastic sacksOption 2)use as a fertilizerOption 3)construction of roadsOption 4)making tubes and pipes

Which of the follwoing protocols did aim for reducing emissions of chloroflurocarbons into the atmosphere?

  • Option 1)

    Montreal protocol

  • Option 2)

    Kyoto protocol

  • Option 3)

    Gothenburg protocol

  • Option 4)

    Geneva protocol

 

Montreal Protocol -

Recognising the deleterious affects of ozone depletion, an international conference treaty, known as the Montreal Protocol, was signed at Montreal (Canada).

- wherein

In 1987 (effective in 1989) to control the emission of ozone depleting substances. Subsequently many more efforts have been made and protocols have laid down definite roadmaps, separately for developed and developing countries, for reducing the emission of CFCs and other ozone depleting chemicals.

 

 

 

  • Monteral Protocol is an international treaty signed in 1987 to control the emission of ozone depleting substances, such as chloroflurocarbons (CFCs)
  •  Kyoto protocol commits the party states to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.
  • Gotherburg protocol was signed to reduce acidification , eutrophication and ground level ozone.
  • Geneva protocol prohibits the use of chemical and biological weapons as warfare methods.

 


Option 1)

Montreal protocol

Option 2)

Kyoto protocol

Option 3)

Gothenburg protocol

Option 4)

Geneva protocol

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Match ColumnI with Column II

 Column I                                                                 Column II

a. Saprophytes                                                        i. Symbiotic association of fungi with plant roots            

b. Parasite                                                               ii. Decomposition of dead organic materials

c. Lichens                                                                iii. Living on living plants or animals

d. Mycorrhiza                                                            iv. Symbiotic association of algae and fungi

Choose the correct answer from the options given below

 

  • Option 1)

    a-i, b-ii , c-ii d-iv

  • Option 2)

    a-iii, b-ii, c-i, d-iv

  • Option 3)

    a-ii, b-i, c-iii, d-iv

  • Option 4)

    a-ii, b-iii, c-iv. d-i

  saprotrophs - The detritus food chain (DFC) begins with dead organic matter. It is made up of decomposers which are heterotrophic organisms, mainly fungi and bacteria. - wherein They meet their energy and nutrient requirements by degrading dead organic matter or detritus. These are also known as saprotrophs (sapro: to decompose). Decomposers secrete digestive enzymes that breakdown dead and...

Due to increasing air - brone allergens and pollutnats, many people in urban areas are suffering from respiratory disorder causing wheezing due to:

  • Option 1)

    benign growth on mucous lining of nasal cavity

  • Option 2)

    inflammation of bronchi and bronchioles

  • Option 3)

    proliferation of fibrous tissues and damage of the alveolar walls

  • Option 4)

    reduction in the secretion of surfacants by pneumocyctes.

  Causes of air pollution - Industries: Combustion of fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, etc. Industrial smoke is the main source of pollution. - wherein Automobiles: The combustion of petrol and diesel in automobiles releases harmful gases into the air. They also produce dust.    Wheezing is a high - pitched, coarse whistling sound that can occur when a person is breathing. The main cause of...

Which one of the following is not a method of in - situ conservation of biodivesity?

  • Option 1)

    Biosphere reserve 

  • Option 2)

    Wildlife sanctuary

  • Option 3)

    Botanical garden

  • Option 4)

    Sacred grove 

  In situ conservation - In-situ conservation is the on-site conservation or the conservation of genetic resources in natural populations of plant or animal species, such as forest genetic resources in natural populations of tree species. - wherein It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat, either by protecting or restoring the habitat itself,...

Which of the following ecological pyramid is generally inverted?

 

  • Option 1)

    Pyramid of numbers in grassland

  • Option 2)

    Pyramid of energy

  • Option 3)

    Pyramid of biomass in forest

  • Option 4)

    Pyramid of biomass in a sea 

  Ecological pyramids - The number, biomass and energy of organisms gradually decrease from the producer level to the consumer level. This can be represented in the form of a pyramid called ecological pyramid. - wherein Ecological pyramid is the graphic representation of the number, biomass, and energy of the successive trophic levels of an ecosystem.       Pyramid of biomass in sea is...

The Earth Summit held in Rio de Janerio in 1992 was called:

 

  • Option 1)

    to reduce CO2 emissions and global warming

  • Option 2)

    for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable utilization of its benefits.

  • Option 3)

    to assess threat posed to native species by invasive weed species.

  • Option 4)

    for immediate steps to discontinue use of CFCs that were damaging the ozone layer.

  The Earth Summit - The historic Convention on Biological Diversity (‘The Earth Summit’) held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, called upon all nations to take appropriate measures for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable utilisation of its benefits. - wherein In a follow-up, the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in 2002 in Johannesburg, South Africa, 190 countries pledged their...

Which of the following is the most important cause for animals and plants being driven to the extinction?

  • Option 1)

    Habitat loss and frangementation

  • Option 2)

    Drought and floods

  • Option 3)

    Economic exploitation

  • Option 4)

    Alien species invasion

  Causes of biodiversity losses - The accelerated rates of species extinctions that the world is facing now are largely due to human activities. There are four major causes (‘ The Evil Quartet ’ is the sobriquet used to describe them). - wherein 1. Habitat loss and fragmentation 2. Over-exploitation: 3. Alien species invasions: 4. Co-extinctions       The major causes of the biodiversity...
IMG_20190220_141406.jpg

\frac{dN}{dt} = rN \\ r= birth rate - death rate \\ = 0.028-0.008=0.02\\dt =10 years\\N= N_{2005}=14 million\\dN =change in population in 10years\\\frac{dN}{dt}=0.02\times 14\\dN=0.02\times 14\times 10=2.8 million\\N_{2015} = 2.8+14=16.8 million or 17 million

dt birthrate — deathrate 0.028 — 0.008 = 0.02 N dt ciN N20D5 = 14million changeinpopulationin I Oyear s 0.02 x 14 0.02 x 14 x 10 = 2.8mi11ion N2015 = 2.8
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1551090965304..jpg
See limiting factor is a factor which is deficient to such an extent that a little increase in its magnitude can directly increase the rate of the process. Now productivity is defined by photosynthesis. If photosynthesis is more, than productivity will also be more. In deep ocean sunlight does not penetrate. So sunlight is a limiting factor here.
Sir can you please send me the list of days celebrated which are imp as per need aspect like world cancer day , world environment day and more .. please I'll be grateful to you

January

1st Jan

World Peace Day

4th Jan

International World Braille Day

6th Jan

World Day -War Orphans

9th Jan

NRI Day

10th Jan

World Laughter Day

11th Jan

National Human Trafficking Awareness Day

12th Jan

National youth day (India)

15th Jan

Army Day (India)

20th Jan

World Religion Day

24th Jan

National Girl child day (India)

25th Jan

Tourism Day and  National Voters Day (India)

26th Jan

Republic Day (India)

27th Jan

International Holocaust Remembrance Day

30th Jan

World Leprosy Eradication Day

February

2nd  Feb

World Wetlands Day

3rd Feb

World Cancer Awareness Day

4th Feb

World Cancer Day

6th Feb

International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation

12th Feb

International Day of Women’s Health

13th Feb

World Radio Day (UNESCO)

20th Feb

World Day of Social Justice

21st Feb

International Mother Language Day

23th Feb

World Peace and Understanding Day

24th Feb

Central Excise Day

28th Feb

National Science Day (India)

March

4th Mar

World Day of the Fight Against Sexual Exploitation

8th Mar

International Women’s Day 

 International Literacy Day

14th Mar

International Day of Action for Rivers

15th Mar

World Consumer Rights Day

World Disabled Day

16th Mar

National Vaccination Day

21st Mar

International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination UN

World Forestry Day

22nd  Mar

World Day for Water

23rd Mar

World Meteorological Day

24th Mar

World Tuberculosis Day

April

2nd Apr

World Autism Awareness Day

5th Apr

National Maritime Day (India)

7th Apr

World Health Day

14th Apr

Cultural Unity Day (recognized by India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Bangladesh, and Nepal)

National Law Day (India)

17th Apr

World Haemophilia Day

18th Apr

World Heritage Day

21st Apr

Civil Services Day (India)

22nd Apr

Earth Day

25th Apr

World Malaria Day

 National Administrative Professionals Day

26th Apr

World Intellectual Property Day

May

1st May

Labour Day

2nd  May

International Astronomy Day

3rd May

World Solar Energy Day

 World Asthma Day

8th May

World Red Cross & Red Crescent Day

9th May

World Thalassemia Day

10th May

World Mother Day

11th May

National Technology Day (India)

12th May

World Migratory Bird Day

13th May

International Criminal Court Day

17th May

World Telecommunication Day

 World Information Society Day

18th May

International Museum Day

19th May

World Hepatitis Day

20th May

World Metrology Day

21st May

World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development

Anti-Terrorism Day

22nd May

International Day for Biological Diversity

24th May

Commonwealth Day

29thMay

International Day of United Nations Peacekeepers

International Mount Everest Day (Chosen by Nepal)

31st May

World Anti-Tobacco Day

June

1st Jun

International Children’s Day

4th Jun

International Day of Innocent Children Victims of Aggression

5th Jun

World Environment Day

6th Jun

Hunger Day

8th Jun

World Ocean Day

12th Jun

World Day Against Child Labour

14th Jun

World Blood Donor Day

15th Jun

World Elder Abuse Awareness Day

16th Jun

International Integration Day

17th Jun

World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought

19th Jun

World Sickle Cell Day

20th Jun

World Refugee Day

21st Jun

World Music Day

23th Jun

United Nations Public Service Day

International Olympic Day

26th Jun

International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking International Anti-Drugs Day

International Day in Support of Victims of Torture

3rd Sunday of June

International Father’s Day

July

1st Jul

Doctor’s Day

2st Jul

World UFO Day

World Sports Journalists Day

7th Jul

International Cooperative Day

11th Jul

World Population Day

18th Jul

Mandela Day

26th Jul

Kargil Memorial Day

28th Jul

World Hepatitis Day

World Nature Conservation Day

29th Jul

International Tiger Day

30th Jul

International Day of Friendship

August

1st Aug

Clergy Sexual Abuse Awareness Day

6th Aug

Hiroshima Day

Anti-Nuclear Day

8th Aug

World Senior Citizen Day

9th Aug

Nagasaki Day

 International Day of the World’s Indigenous People

10th Aug

Dengue Prevention Day

12th Aug

International Youth Day

15th Aug

India’s Independence Day

19th Aug

World Humanitarian Da

20th Aug

World Mosquito Day

23rd Aug

International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition

29th Aug

National Sports Day (India)

International Day against Nuclear Tests

September

2nd Sep

World Coconut Day

4th Sep

Minority Welfare Day

 World Cerebral Palsy Day

5th Sep

Teachers Day (India)

8th Sep

International Literacy Day

11th Sep

World First Aid Day

12th Sep

United Nations Day for South-South Cooperation

14th Sep

Hindi Day (India)

15th Sep

International Day of Democracy

16th Sep

World Ozone Day

19th Sep

International Talk Like a Pirate Day

21st  Sep

International Day of Peace

World Alzheimer’s Day

 Biosphere Day

22nd Sep

World Rhino Day

26th Sep

World Day Of The Deaf

28th Sep

Right to Know Day

30th Sep

Blasphemy Day

October

1st Oct

International Day of Older Persons

2nd Oct

International Day of Non-Violence

Human Rights Protection Day

World Animal Day

3rd Oct

World Nature Day

4th Oct

World Animal Welfare Day

5th Oct

World Teachers’ Day

8th Oct

World Humanitarian Action Day

10th Oct

National Post Day (India)

13th Oct

World Day for Natural Disaster Reduction

 World Calamity Control Day

15th Oct

International Day of Rural Women

16th Oct

World Food Day

17th Oct

International Day for the Eradication of Poverty

20th Oct

International Day of the Air Traffic Controller

24th Oct

United Nations Day

World Development Information Day

 World Polio Day

27th Oct

World Day for Audiovisual Heritage

30th Oct

World Thrift Day

31st Oct

National Integration Day (India)

November

6th Nov

International Day for Preventing the Exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict

9th Nov

World Legal Services Day

10th Nov

World Immunization Day

12th Nov

World Pneumonia Day

13th Nov

World Kindness Day

14th Nov

Children’s Day (India)

16th Nov

International Day for Tolerance

World Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Day

17th Nov

International Students Day

19th Nov

International Journalist’s remembrance Day

 International Men’s Day

20th Nov

Africa Industrialization Day

 Universal Children’s Day

Transgender Day of Remembrance

21st Nov

World Television Day

World Fisheries Day

25th Nov

International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women

26th Nov

National Law Day (India)

29th Nov

International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People

December

1st Dec

World Aids Day

2nd Dec

International Day for the Abolition of Slavery

3rd Dec

World Conservation Day

4th Dec

Indian Navy Day

5th Dec

International Volunteer Day for Economic and Social Development

7th Dec

Indian Armed Force Flag Day, International Civil Aviation Day

9th Dec

The International Day against Corruption

10th Dec

Human Rights Day

International Animal Rights Day

11th Dec

International Mountain Day

12th Dec

The International Day Of Heavy Metal

14th Dec

National Energy Conservation Day (India)

18th Dec

International Migrants Day

20th Dec

International Human Solidarity Day

23rd Dec

Farmers Day (India)

29th Dec

International Biodiversity Day

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and can you plz describe ...what actually is a niche....?....is it the habitat or the interaction...?
Niche refers to the role of an organism in a particular habitat. it involves its interaction with other organisms living in the habitat also. So habitat is a place where an organisms resides and niche is the role of that organism in that habitat. A habitat can have many niches.
where does secondary succession basically occurs ?
Secondary succession occurs at a place that already possess soil and other remnants of its previous environment. For example succession in a burnt area is secondary succession.
what is the difference between protonema and secondary protonema in mosses?
Primary protonema is only responsible for germination of spore whereas secondary protonema helps in the whole development of gametophytic part of plant
Sir what is meant by ex sister conservation??
@ Vasudevan.G ( 7736515061 ) Sir what is meant by ex situ conservation?? Solution: Ex situ conservation literally means, "off-site conservation". It is the process of protecting an endangered species, variety or breed, of plant or animal outside its natural habitat; for example, by removing part of the population from a threatened habitat and placing it in a new location, which may be a wild...
Kyoto protocol??

@Drmohamed ashraf

The Kyoto Protocol is significant because, unlike previous negotiations on climate change, which had only suggested that governments voluntarily reduce their emission of greenhouse gases, it contains concrete mandatory aims for the countries which have signed it.

which are the pollution indicators of water pollution?
Q. which are the pollution indicators of water pollution?  Water quality is often described by the concentration of different chemicals of interest. Determining whether water quality is “good” or “bad” depends on the purpose of the assessment—for example, water with naturally elevated concentrations of some metals may not be suitable for drinking water, but may be suitable for industrial uses....
Why biofortification is the need of the hour today?
Biofortification – breeding crops with higher levels of vitamins and minerals, or higher protein and healthier fats – is the most practical means to improve public health. Breeding for improved nutritional quality is undertaken with the objectives of improving – (i) Protein content and quality; (ii) Oil content and quality; (iii) Vitamin content; and (iv) Micronutrient and mineral content.
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