2. When and where does reduction division take place in the life cycle of a liverwort, a moss, a fern, a gymnosperm and an angiosperm?
In the life cycle of a liverwort reduction division take place in the capsule for the formation of haploid spores that will grow into gametophytic thallus after germination. In mosses, the gametes fertilise and a zygote is formed. The zygote develops into the sporophyte. In the capsule of the sporophyte, reduction division takes place and haploid spores are formed which on germination give rise to gametophytic thallus. In ferns, reduction division takes place in the sporangia present on leaves for the production of spores. Gymnosperms, which have sporophytic plant body show reduction division in their microsporangia and megasporangia for the formation of microspores and megaspores. In the case of angiosperms, the main plant body is diploid and reduction division occurs for the formation of gametes. Therefore, in the life cycle of an angiosperm, reduction division takes place in the anther and ovary at the time of microspore and megaspore formation respectively.