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             (a) Ascending limb of Henle’s loop is impermeable to water whereas the descending limb is permeable to it.              (b) Reabsorption of water from distal parts of the tubules is facilitated by hormone ADH.              (c) Dialysis fluid contain all the constituents as in plasma except nitrogenous wastes               (d) A healthy adult human excretes (on an average) 20-30...
Cortical portions projecting between the medullary pyramids in the human kidney are called columns of Bertini  
Juxtaglomerular apparatus is an apparatus consisting of a few cells of the glomerulus, distal tubule, and afferent and efferent arterioles It is involved in maintaining the glomerular filtration rate in the kidney.  JGA is found to be located in a specialised region of a nephron, where the afferent arteriole and the distal convoluted tubule are in direct contact with each other. The...
Terrestrial animals are either ureotelic or uricotelic, and not ammonotelic  because of the following two reasons: 1. Since ammonia is highly toxic in nature, it needs to be converted into a less toxic form such as urea or uric acid. 2. Terrestrial animals need to conserve water.  Ammonia being soluble in water, cannot be eliminated continuously. Hence, it needs to be converted into urea or...
Osmoregulation- It is a homeostatic mechanism that regulates the optimum temperature of water and salts in the tissues and body fluids. It maintains the internal environment of the body by maintaining the water and ionic concentration.
  The correct matching is a-iii, b-v, c-iv, d-i, e-ii                          Column I                              Column II               (a) Ammonotelism                   (iii) Bony fish               (b) Bowman’s capsule             (v) Renal tubule               (c) Micturition                          (iv) Urinary bladder               (d) Uricotelism                         (i)...
The process by which the urine from the urinary bladder is excreted out is called micturition. As the urine accumulates, the muscular walls of the bladder expands and cause the stimulation of the sensory nerves in the bladder, setting up a reflex action. This reflex stimulates the urge to pass out urine. In order to discharge urine, the urethral sphincter relaxes and the smooth muscles of the...
Apart from kidney, liver, lungs, and skin also play important roles in the process of excretion. 1. LIver- The liver is the largest gland in vertebrates which helps in the excretion of compounds like cholesterol, steroid hormones, vitamins, drugs, and other waste materials via the production of bile. Urea is formed in the liver by the ornithine cycle whereas ammonia which is a toxic substance...
The function of the countercurrent mechanism that operates inside the kidney is to conserve the water and make the urine concentrated. The countercurrent mechanism depends upon the loops of Henle, vasa recta, collecting ducts and interstitial fluid. The blood flows in the two limbs of the tube in opposite directions giving rise to the counter-currents. The proximity between the loop of Henle...
          (a) Micturition is carried out by a reflex. True statement            (b) ADH helps in water elimination, making the urine hypotonic. False statement             (c) The protein-free fluid is filtered from blood plasma into the Bowman’s capsule. True statement            (d) Henle’s loop plays an important role in concentrating the urine. True statements            (e) Glucose is...
The kidneys have built-in mechanisms for the regulation of glomerular filtration rate. One such mechanism is the Juxtaglomerular apparatus. Juxtaglomerular apparatus is a microscopic structure located between the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle and the returning distal convoluted tubule of the same nephron. It plays a role in regulating the renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate....
Glomerular filtration rate- It refers to the amount of glomerular filtrate formed in all the nephrons of both the kidneys per minute. In a healthy individual, it is about 125 ml/minute. The glomerular filtrate contains glucose, amino acids, sodium, potassium, urea, uric acid, ketone bodies, and large amounts of water.
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