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15. Prepare a list of some animals that are found parasitic on human beings.

Taenia ( Tapeworm) Ascaris (roundworm) Ancylostoma (hookworm) Enterobius (pinworm) Wuchereria (filarial worm)

14.  Match the following:


                    (a) Operculum                     (i) Ctenophora
                    (b) Parapodia                      (ii) Mollusca
                    (c) Scales                            (iii) Porifera
                    (d) Comb plates                  (iv) Reptilia
                    (e) Radula                           (v) Annelida
                    (f ) Hairs                              (vi) Cyclostomata and Chondrichthyes
                    (g) Choanocytes                 (vii) Mammalia
                    (h) Gill slits                         (viii) Osteichthyes

(a)-(viii), (b)-(v), (c)-(iv), (d)-(i), (e)-(ii), (f)- (vii), (g)- (iii), (h)- (vi)                   (a) Operculum                    (viii) Osteichthyes                     (b) Parapodia                    (v) Annelida                     (c) Scales                          (iv) Reptilia                     (d) Comb plates                 (i) Ctenophora                     (e) Radula...

13. Segmentation in the body is first observed in which of the following:


         (a) Platyhelminthes   (b) Aschelminthes   (c)   Annelida   (d) Arthropoda

(c) Annelida

12. Could the number of eggs or young ones produced by an oviparous and viviparous mother be equal? Why?

No, the number of eggs produced in oviparous animals and young ones in viviparous animals are not equal. It is because oviparous animals lay eggs outside the body of female in water, land etc so these eggs do not get the conditions that are necessary for the development and hatching of the eggs. Thus, due to the lack of parental care out of the total eggs produced the chances of survival are...

11. What are the modifications that are observed in birds that help them fly?

Modifications in birds to help them fly are as follows: 1. The bones of birds are pneumatic. These contain air cavities making the bones light. This feature helps the birds in flying. 2. The body of birds is streamlined offering least resistance while flying. 3. Flight muscles are well developed 4. Forelimbs of birds are modified into wings to allow flying. Hindlimbs are used for walking,...

10. How important is the presence of air bladder in Pisces?

The air bladder is found to be present in the members of class Osteichthyes while it is absent in Chondrichthyes. The main function of air bladder is to regulate buoyancy and help the fishes to float in the water. It also prevents them from sinking in the water. Since Chondrichthyes do not have air bladder they have to swim continuously to avoid sinking. 

9. “All vertebrates are chordates but all chordates are not vertebrates”. Justify the statement.

Phylum chordata includes animals characterised by the presence of notochord. This phylum includes sub-phyla urochordata, cephalochordata and vertebrata. In vertebrates, the notochord is replaced by vertebral column, in urochordates and cephalochordates vertebral column is absent. Thus, all vertebrates are chordates but all chordates are not vertebrates as they can be urochordates and...

8. Water vascular system is the characteristic of which group of the following:

         (a) Porifera

         (b) Ctenophora

          (c) Echinodermata

          (d) Chordata

(c). Echinodermata Water vascular system is a characteristic feature of echinoderms which help in locomotion, respiration and capturing of food. 

7. What are the reasons that you can think of for the arthropods to constitute the largest group of the animal kingdom?

The reasons for arthropods being the largest group of animals are as follows: 1.  Presence of tough cuticle for protection of the body. It also helps in tolerating diverse terrestrial conditions.  2. Presence of striated muscles for quick movements 3. Tracheal respiration for direct supply of oxygen as in insects 4. Presence of jointed appendages for performing diverse functions 5. Well...

6. What are the peculiar features that you find in parasitic platyhelminthes?

Platyhelminthes are mostly parasites. The peculiar features of platyhelminthes are as follows  1. The body of platyhelminthes is covered by thick body covering i.e. tegument. It protects the animal from the action of digestive enzymes of the host.  2. The body of platyhelminthes is dorsoventrally flattened. 3. Platyhelminthes possess adhesive structures such as suckers and hookers that are...

5. What is the difference between direct and indirect development?

The differences between direct and indirect development are as follows Direct development   Indirect development In this type of development, an embryo develops into a young one without any intermediate larval stage In this type of development, an embryo develops into a young one with some intermediate larval stages.  Young ones resemble the adult Young ones do not resemble the...

4. Distinguish between intracellular and extracellular digestion?

The differences between intracellular and extracellular digestion are as follows Intracellular digestion   Extracellular digestion The process of digestion of food takes place inside the cells The process of digestion of food takes place outside the cells in the alimentary canal. Only a few enzymes are involved in the process of digestion A number of enzymes are involved in extracellular...

10. Fill in the blank spaces:

              (a) All mammals (except a few) have __________ cervical vertebra.
              (b) The number of phalanges in each limb of human is __________
              (c) Thin filament of myofibril contains 2 ‘F’ actins and two other proteins namely __________ and                            __________.
              (d) In a muscle fibre Ca++ is stored in __________
              (e) __________ and __________ pairs of ribs are called floating ribs.
              (f) The human cranium is made of __________ bones.

              (a) All mammals (except a few) have seven cervical vertebra.               (b) The number of phalanges in each limb of human is 14.               (c) Thin filament of myofibril contains 2 ‘F’ actins and two other proteins namely troponin and tropomyosin.               (d) In a muscle fibre Ca++ is stored in sarcoplasmic reticulum.                (e)  11th and 12th pairs of...

9.     Name the type of joint between the following:-

             (f) between pubic bones in the pelvic girdle

  (f) between pubic bones in the pelvic girdle ball and socket joints are present

9. Name the type of joint between the following:-

            (e) between cranial bones
 

   (e) between cranial bones fibrous joints are present

9. Name the type of joint between the following:-

            (d) femur/acetabulum
 

   (d) femur/acetabulum possess ball and socket joint

9. Name the type of joint between the following:-

            (c) between phalanges
 

(c) between phalanges hinge joint  

9. Name the type of joint between the following:-

            (b) carpal/metacarpal of thumb
 

(b) carpal/metacarpal of thumb possess saddle joint

9. Name the type of joint between the following:-

            (a) atlas/axis
 

   (a) atlas/axis possess pivotal joint  

8.  How do you distinguish between a skeletal muscle and a cardiac muscle ?

The differences between skeletal muscles and cardiac muscles are as follows:  Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle  The function of skeletal muscles is voluntary. Cardiac muscles function involuntarily. The cells of these muscles are unbranched The cells of these muscles are branched INtercalated discs between the cells are absent Intercalated discs between the cells are present These...
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