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In the above reaction, the substitution takes place between the two reactants, followed by the rearrangement of atoms and the groups of atoms.
In this reaction, the hydrogen and bromine are removed from the original compound and formed ethene. So, this is an elimination reaction. 
Bond cleavage by using curved-arrows to show the electron flow of the given reaction can be represented as The reaction intermediate is carbocation. It is a heterolytic cleavage as the bonds break in such a manner that shared electron pair will remain with the one species.
Bond cleavage by using curved-arrows to show the electron flow of the given reaction can be represented as; It is heterolysis as shared pair of an electron is distributed to only bromine ion. Here the reaction intermediate is carbocation.
Bond cleavage by using curved-arrows to show the electron flow of the given reaction can be represented as; It is an example of heterolytic cleavage as the bond breaks in such a manner that electron pair will remain with the carbon of propanone. The reaction intermediate is carbanion.
The given reaction is an example of an addition reaction because in this reaction the two reactant molecule combined to form a single product.  Also, we can say that the Hydrogen and chlorine of  is added in the two different carbon atom of the same compound.
 Bond cleavage by using curved-arrows to show the electron flow of the given reaction can be represented as It is an example of homolysis because the two electrons are equally divided into the products.(see in fig)
These are pairs are structural isomers. Compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures are called structural isomers. The above compounds have the same molecular formula but the structures are different due to the difference in the position of the carbonyl group. In structure one -CO group is present at  position and in second the -CO group is present at   position.
Electrophiles are electron deficient species and can be seeking for an electron pair. On the other hand, the nucleophile is electron rich reagents and they can electron donor(nucleus seeking). Therefore,   (a)  have one lone pair of an electron, electron rich species. So, it is a nucleophile (b)  acts as a nucleus seeking reagent and act as a nucleophile (c)  , it is an electron deficient...
Electrophile- It is an electron deficient species, which seeking for an electron pair. This reagent takes away an electron pair. It is denoted as . For example, carbocationised  neutral molecule having functional groups such as carbonyl group are an example of the electrophile. A nucleophile is a reagent that brings an electron pair. In other words, it is nucleus- seeking reagent called...
The resonating structure of But-2-ene-1-yl carbocation- The -electrons of C-C double bond shift towards the  bond to minimise the deficiency of electron density at . So, this way only one resonant is possible.
The resonating structure of Benzyl carbocation- The -electrons of C-C double bond shift towards the  bond to minimise the deficiency of electron density and the rest of the -electrons follow the same process.
The resonating structure of the Benzaldehyde- Here the  electron of carbon-oxygen double bond starts shifting towards the electronegative oxygen atom and the -electrons of C-C double bonds shifting towards carbonyl group (as shown in figures).
The resonating structure of the But-2-ene-1-al- Here the electrons of C-O bonds shifts to Oxygen atom (more electronegative) and then the  electron of carbon-carbon double bonds starts shifting towards the next C-Cbond, introducing a partial double bond character.
The resonating structure of the nitrobenzene- Here the electrons of N-O bonds shifts to Oxygen atom (more electronegative) and then the  electron of carbon-carbon double bonds starts delocalising towards the N atom.  
The resonating structure of the phenol- The lone pair of electron starts shifting to Oxygen - carbon bond and form a double bond character and  electron of C-C bond shift to next C-C single bond.
When an alkyl group is attached to the  system, it acts as an electron donor group by the property of hyperconjugation. for example in propene, In figure, you can see that the sigma electrons of C-H bonds of the alkyl group are delocalised because of the partially overlapping of the  sigma bond orbital with the empty p orbital of the  bond of the adjacent carbon atom. It is also known as...
Since Nitro group is an electron withdrawing group. So, it shows  effect, By reducing the electron negative charge of the compound, it stabilises the compound. On the other hand, the methyl group is an electron donor group so it shows  effect. This increases the negative charge on the compound and destabilises the compound. Hence    is more stable than the .
The functional groups in the above structure are- Aldehyde () HYdroxyl () Methoxy () double bond (b) The following functional groups are presents- Amino, primary amine () Ester () Tertiary amine ()   R = ethyl group Here,  Nitro group () double bond
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