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17. List any three important characteristics of a population and explain

The term population refers to a group of individuals of any species living in a well-defined geographical area, sharing or competing for similar kind of resources and potentially interbreed. Some characteristics of the population are as follows: 1. Birth rate (natality)- It is the ratio of live births in an area to the population of an area. It is expressed as the number of individuals added to...

Select the statement which explains best parasitism.

(a) One organism is benefited.

(b) Both the organisms are benefited.

(c) One organism is benefited, other is not affected.

(d) One organism is benefited, other is affected.

(d) One organism is benefited, other is affected. In parasitism, one organism lives on the body of another. In this interaction, the parasite gets benefitted while the host is negatively affected. 

15. With the help of suitable diagram describe the logistic population growth curve.

Logistic population growth curve Growth of a population takes place according to the availability of food, presence of predators and parasites, presence of other biotic and abiotic factors affecting a population and other condition in a particular environment. There are two main types of models i.e. exponential growth model and logistic growth model.  Logistic growth curve represents the...

14. Define the following terms and give one example for each :

     (e) Interspecific competition

Interspecific competition: In this interaction, both species (different) get negatively affected. For example, the competition between flamingoes and resident fishes in South American lakes for common food resources i.e., zooplankton.

14. Define the following terms and give one example for each:

     (d) Mutualism

Mutualism: The symbiotic relationship between two species in which both species are benefited is called mutualism. For example, lichens show a mutual symbiotic relationship between fungi and blue-green algae, where both are equally benefited from each other.

14. Define the following terms and give one example for each:

      (c) Camouflage

Camouflage- This is an adaptive strategy adapted by prey species to escape the predators.  For example, many species of frogs and insects camouflage in their surroundings and escape their predators.

14. Define the following terms and give one example for each:

      (b) Parasitism

Parasitism- It is the interaction wherein one species (parasite) depends on the other species (host) for food and shelter. This is a kind of negative interaction as parasite gets benefitted but the host is harmed.  E.g. Taenia solium living in the intestine of human

14. Define the following terms and give one example for each

      (a) Commensalism

Commensalism- It is a kind of population interaction in which one species gets benefitted while the other one remains unaffected. E.g. Orchid growing on trees. 

13. Define population and community

Population- A group of individuals belonging to the same species and residing in a particular geographical area at a given period of time is called population. All humans living in a region constitute the population. Community- A community refers to groups of individuals of different species living in a particular area at a given period of time. Such individuals can not breed with the members...

12. Give an example for:

      (c) An organism of benthic zone

Benthic zone refers to the floor of a water body. Decomposing bacteria are found in the benthic zone. 

12. Give the example for:

      (b) An ectothermic animal

Ectothermic organisms cannot regulate their body temperature. Examples of ectothermic organisms include sharks, frogs, snakes, lizards, tortoises etc.

12. Give an example for:

(a) An endothermic animal

Endothermic organisms are those which can regulate their body temperature. Examples of endothermic organisms include birds such as cow, sparrow, pigeons etc and mammals like bears, rats, cows.rabbits etc.  

11. List the various abiotic environmental factors.

Abiotic environmental factors- These are the non-living conditions present in an ecosystem. The various environmental factors are temperature, light, water, wind, humidity, precipitation, soil, minerals etc.   

10. Write a short note on 

      (e) Effect of temperature or water scarcity and the adaptations of animals.

(e) Effects of temperature or water scarcity and the adaptations of animals: Temperature is considered to be the most important ecological factor.  The average temperature varies from one place to another and these variations in temperature affect the distribution of plants as well as animals on the Earth. There are animals which cannot tolerate a wide range of temperature and these animals are...

10. Write a short note on

   (d) Importance of light to plants

 (d) Importance of light to plants The ultimate source of energy for plants is sunlight. Plants are autotrophic organisms, which need light in order to perform the process of photosynthesis. Plants need the sun because sunlight is made up of electromagnetic radiations which are given off as energy to the plants. These electromagnetic radiation acts as the key factor in a process that is called...

10. Write a short note on

(c) Behavioural adaptations in animals

Behavioural adaptations in animals Various organisms are affected by various environmental conditions. To overcome these environmental conditions, organisms undergo adaptations such as migration, hibernation, aestivation, etc. The adaptations in the behaviour of an organism are called behavioural adaptations. For example, ectothermic animals and certain endotherms exhibit behavioural...

10. Write a short note on

(b) Adaptations of plants to water scarcity

(b) Adaptations of plants to water scarcity Plants found in desserts are well adapted to cope with water scarcity and scorching heat of the desert. Some of these adaptations are as follows: 1. Plants have an extensive root system to tap underground water. 2. They bear thick cuticles and sunken stomata on the surface of their leaves to reduce transpiration. 3. In Opuntia, the leaves are modified...

10. Write a short note on

      (a) Adaptations of desert plants and animals

(a) Adaptations of desert plants and animals Plants found in deserts are well adapted to overcome the harsh desert conditions such as water scarcity and scorching heat. Adaptations of desert plants include 1. To reach to underground water, plants have an extensive root system. 2. They bear thick cuticles and sunken stomata on the surface of their leaves to reduce transpiration. 3. In Opuntia,...

9. Distinguish between the following: 
    (b) Ectotherms and Endotherms

The differentiation between ectotherms and endotherms is as follows: Ectotherms   Endotherms These are cold-blooded animals     These are warm-blooded animals The change according to the variation in the environment                      They maintain a constant internal environment despite the changing environment  

9. Distinguish between the following:

    (a) Hibernation and Aestivation

The differences between hibernation and aestivation are as follows Hibernation  Aestivation A state of reduction in activity in some organisms to escape winters A state of reduction in activity in some organisms to escape extreme summers E.g. Bears and squirrels  E.g. Fishes and snails  
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