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8. What is the ecological principle behind the biological control method of managing with pest insects?

The biological principle involved in the biological control method of managing pest insects is checking their population through predators and parasites. The predators act as biological control by preying upon insect pests. 

7. An orchid plant is growing on the branch of mango tree. How do you describe this interaction between the orchid and the mango tree?

An orchid that grows on mango tree represents an interaction called commensalism. In this type of interaction, one species is benefitted while another one remains unaffected. Orchid acts as an epiphyte on the mango tree as it does not derive nutrition from it but uses it for support while mango tree remain unaffected 

6. Name important defence mechanisms in plants against herbivory.

The defence mechanisms in plants against herbivory are as follows: 1. Presence of thorns, spines, prickles and bristles 2. Stinging hirs 3. Hairy coating 4. Harbouring ants e.g. Acacia 5. Sticky glandular hairs e.g. Gnaphalium 6. Chemicals like latex, alkaloids and tannins having a bitter taste, offensive smell, silica and poisonous cardiac glycosides which herbivore animals do not like.

5. If a population growing exponentially double in size in 3 years, what is the intrinsic rate of increase (r) of the population?

Thus, if a population growing exponentially double in size in 3 years, the intrinsic rate of increase (r) of the population will be 0.264.

4. List the attributes that populations possess but not individuals

The term population refers to a group of individuals of any species living in a well-defined geographical area, sharing or competing for similar kind of resources and potentially interbreed.  Population Attributes: A population has certain attributes that an individual organism does not have. For example, individuals may have births and deaths, but a population has birth rates and death rates....

3. Most living organisms cannot survive at temperature above 450C. How are some microbes able to live in habitats with temperatures exceeding 1000C?

Some microbes can survive in temperatures as high as  because these microbes are adapted to live at high temperatures. These organisms contain enzymes which can work at high temperature. This is why they can be found at thermal vents, hot springs etc. The organisms which are unable to survive high temperatures have enzymes that gats deactivated at high temperatures. 

2. If a marine fish is placed in a freshwater aquarium, will the fish be able to survive? Why or why not?

Marine water fishes will not be able to survive in fresh water because marine water fishes are adapted to live in salt water conditions. If they are shifted to freshwater, the process of osmoregulation in them will be affected. Due to the internal high salt condition in fish, the freshwater will come inside the body of fish causing fishes to swell up, ultimately bursting. 

1. Bacteria cannot be seen with the naked eyes, but these can be seen with the help of a microscope. If you have to carry a sample from your home to your biology laboratory to demonstrate the presence of microbes with the help of a microscope, which sample would you carry and why?

If you have to carry a sample from your home to your biology laboratory to demonstrate the presence of microbes with the help of a microscope, you can take curd with you because it consists of numerous lactic acid bacteria. 
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