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8. Define
    (a) Juvenile phase,

All organisms have to reach a particular growth stage before they attain reproductive maturity. This pre-reproductive period of growth is called juvenile phase in animals. In plants, this phase is known as the vegetative phase. The duration of the juvenile phase varies in different organisms.   

7. What is vegetative propagation? Give two suitable examples.

Vegetative propagation is a method of asexual reproduction in plants. In this method, a vegetative part of a plant gives rise to new plants. This vegetative part which has the ability to produce new plants is called vegetative propagule. Some common vegetative propagules are runner, rhizome, sucker, tuber, offset, bulb etc. Vegetative propagation is of two types i.e. natural vegetative...

6. Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction. Why is vegetative reproduction also considered as a type of asexual reproduction?

 Differences between sexual and asexual reproduction are as follows:         Asexual reproduction         Sexual reproduction  It involves a single parent  It involves two parents There is no requirement of sex organs and gametes Gamete formation occurs in sex organs It involves somatic cells of the body it involves germ cells of the body Offsprings produced in asexual reproduction...

5. How does the progeny formed from asexual reproduction differ from those formed by sexual reproduction?

The progeny formed from asexual reproduction differs from that formed from sexual reproduction in the following ways:   Progeny formed from asexual reproduction  Progeny formed from sexual reproduction  1 These are formed from single parent   Their formation requires the involvement of two parents i.e. a male and female 2 The process of formation does not involve meiosis and crossing...

4. Offspring formed due to sexual reproduction have better chances of survival. Why? Is this statement always true?

During sexual reproduction male and female gametes from male and female individuals respectively fuse with each other and form zygote. This zygote contains new combinations of DNA/genes that are a result of recombination and crossing over. Due to the presence of these new combinations of DNA, variations are caused. These variations allow organisms to survive in unfavourable conditions. This is...

3. Why is the offspring formed by asexual reproduction referred to as clone?

The term clone refers to a group of genetically and morphologically similar individuals.  In asexual reproduction, a single organism is able to give rise to offsprings. Due to this, the offsprings thus produced are copies of their parents. These offsprings are exact replicas of each other also. That is why the offsprings produced by asexual reproduction are referred to as a clone.  

2. Which is a better mode of reproduction: sexual or asexual? Why?

Among sexual and asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction is considered to be a better mode of reproduction. It is mainly because sexual reproduction tends to create more amount of variations among the organisms. It involves two parents which contribute the 50% of their genomes each to the zygote. As a result of this, offsprings have father's characters, mother's characters and some other...

1. Why is reproduction essential for organisms?

Reproduction refers to the process of production of offsprings by living organisms. The offsprings produced are similar to their parents. These offsprings grow and become reproductively mature to leave their progenies. Therefore, this process repeats itself and a continuity of species is maintained generation after generation. If reproduction would not have been there, species would not be able...