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Aniline on treating with nitrous acid followed by sandmeyers reaction gives benzonitrile (), which on acidic hydrolysis form benzoic acid  () and then reduction process with  (lithium aluminium hydride) to get desired product.
Use the Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction so that it gives aniline and then do diazotisation reaction so that  group is replaced by  and then reduction with the help of () so that it reduced into the benzene ring. And then alkylation of benzene gives toluene as a final product.
Aniline on reacting with the acetic anhydride in the presence of pyridine it gives N-phenylethanamide which on further reacting with  the  group direct the bromine to the para- position and after hydrolysis, we can recover the  original  group at the same position     
On nitration of chlorobenzene, it gives p-nitrochlorobenzene which is on further reacting with  , it reduces   to     
On reacting benzyl chloride with the ethanolic sodium cyanide (), it replaces the Chlorine with CN molecule. And then reduction with the help of    
First, we do bromination of aniline which gives 2,4,6-tribromoaniline after that do diazotisation reaction which converts  group into  and then react it with fluoroboric acid() gives us desired product.      
On reacting benzoic acid with  we get benzene sulphonyl chloride and when it reacts with ammonia the chlorine is replaced by  and after that do Hoffmann bromide degradation reaction to remove -CO group.   
First, We do nitration of benzene so that it can direct the bromine to meta position and then bromination of nitrobenzene after that reduce it with the help of  followed by diazotisation reaction and then hydrolysis in warm water.     
First, reduce nitrobenzene into aniline with the help of . Now convert aniline to diazonium salt followed by sandmeyers reaction () to benzonitrile and after acid hydrolysis benzonitrile becomes benzoic acid.  
Gabriel phthalimide synthesis.- It is used for mainly aliphatic primary amine preparation. Phthalimide reacts with ethanolic potassium hydroxide and produces potassium salt of phthalimide which on heating with alkyl halide followed by alkaline hydrolysis gives corresponding primary amine. Aromatic amines cannot be produced by this method due to the inability of aryl halides to do nucleophilic...
Acetylation- The introduction of an acetyl group ()in a molecule is known as acetylation.      Example-   Aliphatic and aromatic primary and secondary amines undergo acetylation reaction when treated with acid chlorides, anhydrides or esters by nucleophilic substitution. Here Hydrogen atom of  or  is replaced by  the group.  
Ammonolysis-  When an alkyl or benzyl halide is going to react with the solution of ammonia(an ethanolic) undergoes nucleophilic substitution reaction in which the halogen atom is replaced by an amino () group. This process of cleavage of the carbon-halogen(C-X) bond by ammonia molecule is known as ammonolysis.   When this substituted ammonium salt is treated with a strong base it gives...
Coupling reaction-  The reaction of joining of diazonium salt to the aromatic ring (like phenol) through  bond is known ass coupling reaction. Benzene diazonium chloride reacts with phenol in which the phenol molecule at its para position is coupled with the diazonium salt() to give p-hydroxyazobenzene(orange in colour) Reactions-   diazonium salt reacts with aniline to give...
Hofmann’s bromamide reaction- When an amide is treated with bromine in aqueous solution or ethanolic solution of sodium hydroxide. It produces primary amines with one less carbon atom than the parent compound. This reaction is known as the Hoffmann bromide degradation reaction. R = alkyl group like 
DIAZOTISATION- Aromatic primary amines react with nitrous acid ()at low temperature to form diazonium salts. This conversion of aromatic primary amines into diazonium salt is known as diazotisation.                                                                   
Carbylamine reaction-   Aliphatic and aromatic primary amines on reacting with chloroform and ethanolic KOH form isocyanides or carbylamine which is foul smelling substance. Secondary and tertiary amine does not give this reaction. This reaction is known as carbylamine reaction or isocyanide test. It is used to distinguish primary amine.
Primary, secondary and tertiary amines are distinguished by the Hinsberg's reagent test. In this test, the amines are allowing to react with benzene sulphonyl chloride(Hinsberg's reagent). All three types of amines give different products. 1.Primary amine reacts with benzene sulphonyl chloride  gives  N-ethylbenzene sulphonamide which is soluble in alkali.                                      ...
Propanoic acid on reacting with an excess of ammonia gives propanamide which on further react with bromine and potassium hydroxide (Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction) gives ethenamine. On diazotisation, ethenamine converted into azo salt which on treating with water forms ethanol. Ethanol on oxidation provides ethanoic acid.
    Methenamine on diazotisation gives methane diazonium salt, which on further hydrolysis form methanol. Methanol on reacting with  followed by ethanolic sodium cyanide () produces Ethane nitrile, which on reduction with  gives ethenamine.
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