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10.22     What happens when

        (vi)      methyl chloride is treated with KCN?

When methyl chloride is treated with KCN the following reaction occurs:-                                 

10.22     What happens when

         (v)    methyl bromide is treated with sodium in the presence of dry ether

When methyl bromide is treated with sodium in the presence of dry ether then following reaction occurs:-                                        

10.22     What happens when

        (iv)    ethyl chloride is treated with aqueous KOH

When ethyl chloride is treated with aqueous KOH the following reaction occurs :-                                        

10.22     What happens when

         (iii)    chlorobenzene is subjected to hydrolysis

The reaction is given below :-                                                

10.22     What happens when

        (ii)     bromobenzene is treated with Mg in the presence of dry ether

 When bromobenzene is treated with Mg in the presence of dry ether the following reaction occurs :-                             

10.22     What happens when

         (i)       n-butyl chloride is treated with alcoholic KOH,

 

When n-butyl chloride is treated with alcoholic KOH the following reaction occurs:-                                

10.21     Primary alkyl halide C_{4}H_{9}Br (a) reacted with alcoholic KOH to give compound (b). Compound (b) is reacted with HBr to give (c) which is an isomer of (a). When (a) is reacted with sodium metal it gives compound (d), C_{8}H_{18} which is different from the compound formed when n-butyl bromide is reacted with sodium. Give the structural formula of (a) and write the equations for all the reactions.

With the given formula we have two alkyl halides They are n - butyl bromide and isobutyl bromide. For the first set of reaction we get two possibilities:-                                             Therefore compound (d) is 2, 5-dimethylhexane.                                                                     

10.20    The treatment of alkyl chlorides with aqueous KOH leads to the formation of alcohols but in the presence of alcoholic KOH, alkenes are major products. Explain.

In an aqueous solution, KOH almost completely dissociates into OH - ions. We know that OH - ions are strong nucleophile, which leads the alkyl chloride to undergo a reaction to form alcohol. But an alcoholic solution of KOH contains alkoxide (RO - ) ion, which is a strong base. Thus, it can remove hydrogen from the β-carbon of the alkyl chloride and form an alkene.  The OH - ion is a weaker...

10.19     How the following conversions can be carried out?

        (xx)     Aniline to phenylisocyanide

The mechanism for the given reaction is as follows :-                         

10.19     How the following conversions can be carried out?

      (xix)      tert-Butyl bromide to isobutyl bromide

The mechanism of the given reaction is :-                                           

10.19     How the following conversions can be carried out?

     (xviii)      Benzene to diphenyl

 The mechanism for the given reaction is :-                             

10.19     How the following conversions can be carried out?

      (xvii)      Chloroethane to butane

(xvii) The mechanism of the reaction is :-                                        

10.19     How the following conversions can be carried out?

        (xvi)     2-Bromopropane to 1-bromopropane

 The mechanism of the reaction is given below :-                                

10.19     How the following conversions can be carried out?

        (xv)     Chlorobenzene to p-nitrophenol

(xv) The required mechanism is given below :-                            

10.19     How the following conversions can be carried out?

        (xiv)      Isopropyl alcohol to iodoform

(xiv) The proposed mechanism is :-                                   

10.19     How the following conversions can be carried out?

        (xiii)      2-Chloropropane to 1-propanol

The mechanism is :-                        

10.19     How the following conversions can be carried out?

        (xii)     But-1-ene to n-butyliodide

The mechanism is given below :-                                      

10.19     How the following conversions can be carried out ?

        (xi)      Ethyl chloride to propanoic acid 

 The mechanism of the given reaction is :-                                 

10.19     How the following conversions can be carried out?

         (x)      2-Methyl-1-propene to 2-chloro-2-methylpropane m

(x) The required mechanism is given below :-                

10.19     How the following conversions can be carried out ?

        (ix)      2-Chlorobutane to 3, 4-dimethylhexane

(ix)   The required mechanism is as follows :-              
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