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Initially, he prepared a red compound of formula   with the help of oxygen and   . Later, he realised that the first ionisation enthalpy of molecular oxygen (1175 kJ/mol)  and that of xenon (1170 kJ/mol) are almost identical and then he tried to prepare the same type of compound with Xe and . He was successful in preparing another red colour compound.
Chlorine has a great affinity for hydrogen. Chlorine reacts with hydrogen-containing compounds to form HCl. HCL to Chlorine
All halogens are coloured due to the absorption of radiations which comes under visible region, which results in the excitation of outer electrons to higher energy level. The different quanta of radiation absorb by different halogens and they display different colours, for example is, , has yellow, , greenish yellow, , red and , violet colour.
Uses of .    is used as a bleaching agent for paper pulp and in textiles   is used as a germicide in water treatment.
Inspite of nearly the same electronegativity, nitrogen forms hydrogen bonding while chlorine does not, the reason behind this is the small size of nitrogen atom as compared to the chlorine atom. The small size makes electron density per volume higher.
In fluorine d-orbitals are absent and also it has very high electronegativity and small size.o it shows only +1 oxidation state in oxo-acid, but not + 3, + 5 or + 7. Hence It forms only one oxoacid  and doesn't form oxoacid having other oxidation states than +1 like   .
Halogens have 7 electrons in their valance shell and they need only one more electron to complete their octet and to attain the stable noble gas configuration. So they have a high tendency to gain an electron. Also, halogens are highly electronegative with low dissociation energies and high negative electron gain enthalpies which just increase the tendency to gain an electron. Hence they are...
 Sulphur dioxide  is considered an air pollutant because it readily undergoes oxidation in the atmosphere to form Sulphur trioxide  which then reacts with water vapour to form sulphuric acid .  Which comes down in the form of acid rain. acid rain causes deforestation which is also not good for the environment. Even in low concentration of  causes the irritation in the eyes, respiratory problem...
Sulphuric acid is manufactured by the Contact Process that involves three steps: (i) burning of sulphide ores or sulphur in the air to generate. (ii) conversion of to  by the reaction with oxygen in the presence of a catalyst ( ), and (iii) absorption of in to give Oleum () Diluting the oleum with water gives  of the desired concentration.
Freons which are used in aerosol sprays and as refrigerants is accountable for the depletion of the ozone layer, freons are also called chlorofluorocarbons.
Lattice energy directly depends on the charge carried by an ion. More the lattice energy, more stable the compound will be. When metal and oxygen combine, the lattice energy of the oxide, which involves ion is much more than the oxide which involves ion. Ionic compound stability depends on the lattice energy of the compound. Thus the oxides of   is more stable than oxides having  .
For the preparation of nitrogen, we treat ammonium chloride with sodium nitrite. The following reaction occurs.                                            
Oxygen is smaller in size as compared to the sulphur. Thus it can effectively form  bond and form  molecules. The intermolecular forces in oxygen are weak van der Wall's, which cause it to exist as gas.whereas sulphur exists as a puckered structure held together by strong covalent bonds. Hence, it is solid.
  Electronic Configuration- , , ,  and  , all have six valance electron each. The general electronic configuration of these elements is , where   varies from 2 to 6. Oxidation state- As all of these elements have six valence electrons, they should display an oxidation state of -2. The stability of the -2 oxidation state decreases on moving down a group due to a decrease in the...
It is known that electronegativity of nitrogen is very high as compared to that of phosphorus. So nitrogen is able to attract electrons more effectively as compared to phosphorus. This is why NH3 form hydrogen bond but PH3 don't.
No  can not  act as reducing agent but it can act as an oxidising. In , phosphorus have  its highest oxidation state (+5)  which cannot be increased further but it can decrease its oxidation state and act as an oxidizing agent. For example-
When we heat, orthophosphorus acid (H3PO3) disproportionates into orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4) and phosphine (PH3).
The single bond in nitrogen is weaker than the single bond because of high interelectronic repulsion of the non-bonding electrons in , due to the small bond length. Therefor,  the catenation tendency is weaker in nitrogen.
White phosphorus Red phosphorus It is a translucent white waxy solid It is crystalline solid. It is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulphide  It is insoluble in water as well as in carbon disulphide  poisonous non-poisonous It consists of discrete tetrahedral P4 molecule red phosphorus is polymeric, consisting of chains of P4 tetrahedra linked together  
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