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Q2.    What is pasturage and how is it related to honey production?

Pasturage refers to the flowers available to the bees for nectar and pollen collection. It determines the quality of honey. Moreover, the kind of flowers determine the taste of the honey.

Q1.    What are the desirable characters of bee varieties suitable for honey production?

The desirable character of bee varieties suitable for honey production are: (I)The bees should produce a large amount of honey and wax. (II) The bees should stay for a longer period in a beehive. (III) The bees should breed well. (IV) The bees should stingless.

Q2.    What are the advantages of composite fish culture?

Composite fish culture is an intensive fish farming technique in which both local and imported fish species are used. A combination of five or six fish species having different types of food habits is used in a single fishpond such that they do not compete for food among them. As a result, the food available in all the parts of the pond is used which increases the fish yield from the pond.

Q1.    How are fish obtained?

Fish is a cheap source of animal protein for our food. Fish can be obtained in two ways : I) From natural resources like rivers and ponds, which is called capture fishing. T II) By fish farming in artificial freshwater ecosystems, which is called culture fishery.  

Q2.    What are the differences between broilers and layers and in their management?

Broilers are farmed for obtaining meat whereas layers are farmed for eggs. The housing, nutritional and environmental requirements of broilers and layers are different. The daily food requirement for broilers is rich in protein with adequate fat. The level of vitamins A and K is kept high in the poultry feeds. On the other hand, layers require enough space and lightning. 

Q1.    What management practices are common in dairy and poultry farming?

The management practices that are common in dairy and poultry farming are: Shelter: Proper housing facilities having hygienic conditions are given to the dairy and poultry animals. Feeding: Proper and nutritious feed is provided to dairy animals and poultry birds to get a good yield of products. Health care: Proper prevention and protection from diseases and pests are given to the animals.

Q1.    Discuss the implications of the following statement: “It is interesting to note that poultry is India’s most efficient converter of low fibre foodstuff (which is unfit for human consumption) into highly nutritious animal protein food.”

Poultry farming is done to raise domestic fowl for egg production and chicken meat. These birds consume food which are unfit for human consumption. But in return, they give us eggs and high quality meat which provides human nutritious animal protein.

Q1.    Which method is commonly used for improving cattle breeds and why?

Crossbreeding is commonly used for improving cattle breeds. It is done between indigenous and exotic breeds for variety improvement. The desired characteristics from both the breed are taken to produce a new improved variety. Exotic breed such as Jersey has long lactation periods, while local breeds such as Red Sindhi are very resistant to diseases. The two are cross-bred to get calf with both...

Q2.    What factors may be responsible for losses of grains during storage?

Factors responsible for losses of grains during storage are: 1. Biotic factors such as insects, rodents, and bacteria 2. Abiotic factors such as moisture and temperatures in the place of storage. These affect the quality, causes a loss in weight, discoloration of produce, thereby making the grains unfit for the market.

Q1.    Why should preventive measures and biological control methods be preferred for protecting crops?

Preventive measures and biological control methods are used as they are simple, not expensive, environmentally safe and do not affect the soil quality. These methods are also harmless to other forms of life. The main purpose is to protect the crop from disease-causing pathogens and weeds.  Some preventive measures are proper seedbed preparation, timely sowing of crops, intercropping and crop rotation.  

Q1.    Which of the following conditions will give the most benefits? Why?

                (a) Farmers use high-quality seeds, do not adopt irrigation or use fertilizers.

                (b) Farmers use ordinary seeds, adopt irrigation and use fertilizer.

                (c) Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilizer and use crop protection measures.

Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilizer and use crop protection measures. (c) This condition will give the most benefit. Using quality seeds alone cannot give good results until they are protected, properly irrigated and enriched with fertilizers.

Q1.    Compare the use of manure and fertilizers in maintaining soil fertility.

Manure is prepared by the decomposition of animal excreta and plant waste. (i) The manures enrich the soil with nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous. (ii) The organic matter in manure helps in improving the soil structure. Fertilizers are commercially produced plant nutrients. Fertilizers should be used in proper dose and time. (i) Fertilizers supply nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium to the...

Q2.    How do plants get nutrients?

Plants get their nutrients from air, water and soil. Plants require sixteen essential elements for their growth and development.  Air Carbon, oxygen Water Hydrogen, oxygen Soil Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK) Iron, manganese, chlorine    

Q1.    What are macro-nutrients and why are they called macro- nutrients?

The essential elements which are required by the plants in large quantities are called macro-nutrients. The macronutrients are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur. Note: Remember NPK : nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.

Q2.    What are the desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvements?

Desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvements are: a) Tallness and profuse branching are desirable characters for fodder crops. b) Dwarfness is desired in cereals. This way they consume less nutrients.   

Q1.    How do biotic and abiotic factors affect crop production?

Crop production can go down due to: Biotic factors such as insects, nematodes, and diseases reduce crop production. Insects feed on the crop thus destroying it. Abiotic factors are natural factors like temperature, salinity, waterlogging which also reduces crop production. Different crops require a different range of temperature, hence, the wrong temperature can cause thee crop production to go down.   

Q1.    What do we get from cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables?

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