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Ever observed an old glass window? It will be thicker at the base than the top.                        This shows that glass flows(at a very slow rate) and it can flow because it is amorphous.

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D Divya Prakash Singh
Given quantum numbers : NOT possible, because n cannot be equal to zero.

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D Divya Prakash Singh
Bond order (B.O.) is defined as one half the difference between the number of electrons present in the bonding and the antibonding orbitals of a molecule. Where  are the number of electrons occupying bonding orbitals and the number occupying the antibonding orbitals respectively.  So, bond order for different molecules are:  : The electronic configuration is  Where, the number of bonding...

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D Divya Prakash Singh
Hydrogen bond can be defined as the attractive force acting between the hydrogen atom of one molecule with the electronegative atom (F, O or N) of another molecule. Because of the difference between electro-negativities, the bond pair between hydrogen and the electronegative atom gets drifted towards a more electronegative atom. As a result, the hydrogen atom becomes slightly positively...

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D Divya Prakash Singh
The initial ground state and final excited state electronic configuration of phosphorus (P) are: So, the phosphorus atom is  hybridized in the excited state.The donated electron pairs by five Cl atoms are filled and make . The resultant shape is trigonal bipyramidal and the five  hybrid orbitals are directed towards the five corners. The five P-Cl sigma bonds, three lies in one plane and...

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D Divya Prakash Singh
Wave functions can be used to represent molecular orbitals. The plus and minus represent the positive wave function while negative wave function respectively.

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D Divya Prakash Singh
The electronic configuration of  molecule can be written as: Here the number of bonding electrons is  and the number of antibonding electrons is . Therefore,  The electronic configuration of  molecule can be written as: Here the number of bonding electrons is  and the number of antibonding electrons is . Therefore,  The electronic configuration of  molecule can be written as: Here the...

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D Divya Prakash Singh
The electronic configuration of Be is  . From the molecular orbital electronic configuration, we have for  molecule, We can calculate the bond order for  is  where,  is the number of electrons in bonding orbitals and  is the number of electrons in anti-bonding orbitals. So, therefore we have, Bond order of  that means that the molecule is unstable. Hence, molecule does not exist.

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D Divya Prakash Singh
The important conditions required for the linear combination of atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals are as follows: 1. The combining atomic orbitals must have the same or nearly the same energy. 2..The combining atomic orbitals must have the same symmetry about the molecular axis. 3. The combining atomic orbitals must overlap to the maximum extent.  

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D Divya Prakash Singh
Formation of  molecule: Assume that two hydrogen atoms with nuclei  and electrons are taken to undergo a reaction to form a hydrogen molecule. When the two atoms are at a large distance, there is no interaction between them. As they approach each other, the attractive and repulsive forces start operating. Attractive force arises between: (a) The nucleus of one atom and its own electron i.e.,...

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D Divya Prakash Singh
Difference between the sigma bond and the pi bond is shown in the table below: Sigma  Bond Pi  Bond (a) Formed by end to end overlapping of orbitals. Formed by the lateral overlapping of orbitals (b) Sigma bonds are stronger than the pi bond. Weak bond. (c) The orbitals involved in the overlapping are s-s, s-p, p-p. Bonds are formed only with overlapping of p-p orbitals. (d) The...

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D Divya Prakash Singh
The shared pairs of electrons present between the bonded atoms are called bond pairs. And all valence electrons may not participate in bonding that electron pairs that do not participate in bonding are called lone pairs of electrons. For examples, In  ethane, there are seven bond pairs but no lone pair is present. In , there are two bond pairs and two lone pairs on the central atom (oxygen).

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D Divya Prakash Singh
 is making 4 sigma bonds (single bond) therefore it is  hybridised. and  is making a 2 sigma bonds with carbon and 1 sigma bond with oxygen and one pi bond with oxygen therefore it is   hybridised.

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D Divya Prakash Singh
 is making 4 sigma bonds (single bond) therefore it is  hybridised. and  is making a 3 sigma bonds with hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. and one pi bond with oxygen therefore it is   hybridised.

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D Divya Prakash Singh
 is making 4 sigma bonds (single bond) therefore it is  hybridised. and  is also making a 4 sigma bonds. therefore it is also   hybridised. Therefore they both are  hybridized.
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