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11. Consider the following statements:

(a) Both acids and bases change colour of all indicators.

(b) If an indicator gives a colour change with an acid, it does not give a change with a base.

(c) If an indicator changes colour with a base, it does not change colour with an acid.

(d) Change of colour in an acid and a base depends on the type of the indicator.

Which of these statements are correct?

(i) All four

(ii) a and d

(iii) b, c and d

(iv) only d

Out of all these only  (iv) only (d) is correct

10. Blue litmus paper is dipped in a solution. It remains blue. What is the nature of the solution? Explain.

We know that blue litmus paper turns into red colour when coming in contact with an acidic solution and basic and neutral solutions do not change the color of blue litmus paper. Since blue litmus paper remains blue after it is dipped in a solution.  Therefore, the solution is either basic or neutral in nature.

9. Three liquids are given to you.

One is hydrochloric acid, another is sodium hydroxide and third is a sugar solution. How will you identify them? You have only turmeric indicator.

When we place turmeric solution in contact with bases it turns into red colour and generally It is not affected by acids and neutral substances. Now, we can distinguish between hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide and a sugar solution by applying turmeric solution to three test tubes, we will observe that (1) test tube A (Hydrochloric acid): No change in colour will take place because turmeric...

8.Explain why:

(c) Factory waste is neutralised before disposing it into the water bodies.

Wastes materials in factories contain acids. Therefore, if we threw them directly into water bodies then the water becomes acidic and harm aquatic lives. Therefore, these factory wastes are neutralized with basic chemicals before disposing to water bodies.  

8. Explain why:

(b) Calamine solution is applied on the skin when an ant bites.

The sting of an ant contains formic acid. Therefore,when an ant bites, it injects formic acid into our skin and due to which we feel a  burning sensation. As calamine solution contains zinc carbonate which is basic in nature. Therefore, when we applied it on the skin it neutralize the effect of formic acid.  

8. Explain why:

(a) An antacid tablet is taken when you suffer from acidity.

This is because antacids are substance that neutralizes the excess of acids which is produced in the stomach during acidity as it contains base, such as milk of magnesia. These bases react with the excess amount of acids and neutralize their effect and giving us relief.  

7. Dorji has a few bottles of soft drink in his restaurant. But, unfortunately, these are not labelled. He has to serve the drinks on the demand of customers. One customer wants acidic drink, another wants basic and third one wants neutral drink. How will Dorji decide which drink is to be served to whom?

If Dorji has litmus paper or solution then with the help of that he can distinguish between them by putting one drop of each drink on litmus paper. If the colour of the litmus paper changes to blue, then it is a basic drink and if the colour of the litmus paper changes to red, then it is an acidic drink and if no change in colour then it is neutral. Another method is he can distinguish between...

6. Mark ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if it is false:

(i) Nitric acid turn red litmus blue. (T/F)

(ii) Sodium hydroxide turns blue litmus red. (T/F)

(iii) Sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid neutralise each other and form salt and water. (T/F)

(iv) Indicator is a substance which shows different colours in acidic and basic solutions. (T/F)

(v) Tooth decay is caused by the presence of a base. (T/F)

(i) FALSE  (ii) FALSE  (iii) TRUE (iv) TRUE  (v) FALSE

5. Describe the process of neutralisation with the help of an example.

The reaction between an acid and a base is known as neutralization reaction. In such type of reactions, acid and base reacts with each other and cancel out each other's effect and formation of salt and water takes place and energy in the form of heat is evolved. For eg. Sodium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid   to give sodium chloride   and waterwith evo of some heat..

4. Is the distilled water acidic/basic/neutral?

    How would you verify it?

Nature of distilled water is neutral. Because when we will test it with a litmus paper it does not change the colour of it and turns neither into red nor in blue colour. Therefore, we can say that distilled water is neutral in nature.  

3. Name the source from which litmus solution is obtained. What is the use of this solution?

Litmus solution is commonly obtained from lichens. A natural dye which is extracted from lichens is dissolved in distilled water to form a litmus solution. Litmus solution is used as an indicator to distinguish between acids and bases.  When we add acidic solution to it, it turns red and when we add basic solution to it,it turns blue.  

2. Ammonia is found in many household products, such as window cleaners. It turns red litmus blue. What is its nature?

Bases turn the colour of red litmus to blue and as ammonia also turns the colour of red litmus to blue.  Therefore,  ammonia is basic in nature

1. State differences between acids and bases.

Differences between acids and bases are given below:   Acids Bases 1 Turns blue litmus paper to red  Turns red litmus paper to blue 2 They are sour in test  They are bitter in test 3 Acids does not change the colour of turmeric indicator They changes the colour of turmeric indicator 4 They are not soapy in touch They are soapy in touch 5 Eg : -  HCL Eg:- NaOH  
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