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The ways to prevent soil pollution are: (i) Recycling of non-biodegradable wastes. (ii) Limiting the use of pesticides and insecticides. (iii) Making dumping grounds of non-biodegradable wastes far away from fertile land. The removal of land surface by water, wind or ice is known as erosion. The ways to prevent soil erosion are: (i) Afforestation or planting of trees. (ii) Reduce cutting down...
The various layers of soil are: A- horizon or topsoil : Soft, porous and can retain more water. B- horizon or middle layer: Harder and more compact. C- horizon or third layer: Made up of small lumps of rocks with cracks and crevices. Bedrock:  Hard and difficult to dig.
Differences between clayey soil and sandy soil are: Clayey soil Sandy soil Contains finer particles Contains larger particles Particles are tightly packed  Particles are loosely packed  It is fertile It is not fertile High water retention capacity Low water retention capacity Lowest percolation rate of water Highest percolation rate of water  
Clayey soil is very useful for crops for the following reasons: (i) It has the highest water retaining capacity. (ii) It is very fertile because of humus present in it. This makes it suitable for growing cereals like wheat, gram and paddy.
The breaking down of rocks by the action of wind, water and climate is known as weathering. Soil is formed by the process of weathering. The type of rock decides the nature of soil  formed and the type of vegetation that grows in it.
(ii) Clayey soil The particles in clayey soil are very fine and are packed together tightly. This provides high water retention capacity. Thus, clayey soil has the highest water holding capacity.
In addition to the rock particles, the soil contains (iii) minerals, organic matter, air and water. The uppermost layer of soil is rich in humus and minerals. The humus makes the soil fertile and provides nutrients to growing plants.