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How is pollination carried out in water plants?

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Water mediated pollination takes place in a selected number of plants. For example, in Vallisneria, the female flower reaches the surface of the water. Pollen grains are sprinkled on the water surface, and they are passively transported to the female flower for pollination.

Another example is that of seagrasses, the female flower remains submerged in water, and pollen grains are released below the water surface. In the case of pollination by water, pollen grains have a mucilaginous covering which prevents the pollens from becoming wet.

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