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The internal structure of a dorsiventral leaf-  The leaf lamina of a dorsiventral leaf has 3 parts:  epidermis, mesophyll and vascular system. 1. Epidermis- The epidermis is two layered. The upper epidermis is called adaxial epidermis and the lower one is called abaxial epidermis. More number of stomata are present on the abaxial epidermis. 2. Mesophyll- Inner to epidermis, mesophyll tissue is...
The periderm refers to the collective term used to signify phellogen, phellem, and phelloderm in a plant stem. Periderm formation in plants, mainly occur to replace the existing epidermis. Formation of periderm  The formation of periderm occurs during secondary growth. During this process, to replace the broken outer epidermal layer and the cortical layer, the cells of the cortex turn...
The study of plant anatomy useful to us in the following ways 1. The study of anatomy helps to know the structures of plants that can be of commercial value. For example, jute, flax etc. 2. Study of anatomy can help in knowing the age of trees 3. By knowing the anatomical details, we can identify the unknown plant samples. 4. Anatomy may also help in understanding the structural adaptations of...
The three basic tissue systems in the flowering plants include epidermal tissue system, ground tissue system and vascular tissue system. 1. Epidermal tissue system- It forms the outermost covering of whole plant body. It consists of tissues like epidermis, stomata, epidermal appendages (trichomes and hairs) etc.  2. Ground tissue system- All the tissue between the epidermis and vascular bundle...
Stomata are tiny pores or holes found to be present in the epidermis of leaves. The major function of these stomata is to regulate the process of transpiration and gaseous exchange. The stomatal pore remains surrounded by specialised cells called guard cells which in turn are surrounded by subsidiary cells. The stomatal pore, guard cells and the surrounding subsidiary cells together constitute...
Complex tissues are tissues made up of more than one types of cells. Since xylem and phloem are consists of different kinds of elements, they are called complex tissues. Xylem is consists of vessels, tracheid, xylem fibre and xylem parenchyma 1. Tracheids- These are elongated, thick-walled dead cells having pointed ends. These lack protoplasm 2. Vessels- These are long, tubular, and cylindrical...
An unknown sample can be identified to be either dicot stem or monocot stem based on the following characteristics- Characteristics of a dicot stem-  1. The vascular bundles are conjoint, collateral, and open, with a strip of cambium between the xylem and phloem. 2. The vascular bundles are arranged to form a ring, around the centrally-located pith 3. The ground tissue is differentiated into...
The increase in girth of a plant body is called secondary growth. The tissues involved in secondary growth are vascular cambium and cork cambium. In a young stem, vascular cambium is found in the form of patches as a single layer between the xylem and phloem. During the later stage, it forms a complete ring. Soon, the cambial ring becomes active and begins to cut off new cells towards the inner...
Cork cambium or phellogen is the secondary meristem that develops in the region of cortex to replace the outer epidermal cells that will provide protection to the stem and root from infections. Cork cambium is composed of thin-walled rectangular cells and it cuts off cells on both sides. The outer cells differentiate to form cork or phellem while the inner cells differentiate into secondary...
Meristem refers to the simple tissue composed of a group of similar and immature cells which can divide and form new cells. ON the basis of position, there can be three types of meristem including apical meristem, intercalary meristem and lateral meristem. The location and function of these meristems are as follows:   Type of meristem   Location of meristem Function of meristem Apical...
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