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On nitration of benzoic acid gives meta substituted nitro benzoic acid which on further reacting with reducing agent and followed by acidic hydrolysis gives nitrobenzyl alcohol.  
Nucleophilic reaction of benzaldehyde with  in presence of HCl gives benzaldehyde cyanohydrine, which on acidic hydrolysis formed α-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid  
BY cross aldol-condesation of benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde gives 3-phenylprop-2-ene-al, whixh on catalytic hydrogenation gives 3-Phenylpropan-1-ol     
Bromobenzene on reacting with  in presence of dry ether it formed grignard reagents (), which on further reacting with ethanal followe by acidic hydrolysis gives 1-phenyl ethanol  
On oxidation of benzaldehyde, it converted into benzoic acid, which on further reacting with  it formed calcium benzoate. After distillation we get benzophenone.  
Benzene on reacting with acetic anhydride, it gives acetophenone And further reacting acetophenone with nitric acid in presence of sulphuric acid give meta substituted product, m-nitroacetophenone.  
Ethanol on heating at 573K in presence of copper it convert into ethanal and then by aldol condensation we get 3-hydroxybutanal.  
With the help of mild reducing agent we can reduce benzoic acids into benzaldehyde. alternate method-   First react it with  which replace OH group and then hydogenation reaction.
First, reduce propanone with the help of lithium aluminum hydride () to get propan-2-ol and then by dehydration remove water molecule to get propene.
Alkylationof benzene gives toluene, which on further reaction with  gives p- nitrotoluene and react it with the the carbon disulphide / followed by acidic hydrolysis to form -nitrobenzaldehyde.
Alkylation of benzene in presence of anhydrous  gives toluene, which on further reaction with  gives benzyl bromide and after that reacts with alc. KCN, CN replace the Br and formed benzyle cyanide which on acidic hydrolysis gives phenyl acetic acid.
By friedel craft alkylation of benzene give methyl benzene, which on nitration give meta and para substituted methyl benzene, para substituted is major product. Oxidation of para substituted methyl benzene() gives salts of carboxylic acid, which on further acidic hydrolysis gives p-nitrobenzoic acid.
Benzene on bromination formed bromobenzene and after that we have to react with  in presence of ether it becomes grignard reagents (). Grignard reagents reacts with carbon dioxide (dry ice) to form salts of carboxylic acids, which on acidic hydrolysis gives benzoic acid. Finally after doing nitration we get our desired product (m-Nitrobenzoic acid).  
Benzene on bromination formed bromobenzene and after that we have to react with  in presence of ether it becomes Grignard reagents (). Grignard reagents react with carbon dioxide (dry ice) to form salts of carboxylic acids, which on acidic hydrolysis gives benzoic acid. On esterification, it gives methyl benzoate.
Ethanal and Propanal can be distinguished by Iodoform test. Ethanal has one methyl group attached with Carbonyl group, so it gives a positive iodoform test but propanal does not give this test.
Both can be distinguished by- Iodoform test In acetophenone, methyl ketone group present.So it give positive iodoform test by forming a yellow ppt. Tollen's test Aldehyde give positive tollens test. Benzaldehyde reduces the tollens reagent and give red brown ppt.but acetophenone does  not give this test.
They can be distinguished by iodoform test,  This test is given by compounds having methyl ketone group. So, pentan-2-one give this test and pentan-3-one does not.
Both can be distinguish by sodium bicarbonate test, In this test, benzoic acid react with  to give brisk effervescence due to evoltion of carbon dioxide () but Ethyl benzoate does not.  
Phenol gives ferric chloride test () , on reaction with ferric chloride phenol gives violet coloured solution but benzoic acid does not.
Acetophenone gives ppositive iodoform test, it react with  to give yellow ppt. but benzophenone does not give this test. benzophenone +  no yellow ppt.
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