Biology and Human Welfare  

What is Biology and Human Welfare

There's biology in everything, even when you're feeling spiritual. 
- Helen Fisher

Human welfare is the core of subjective ethics. It simply means that the scientific and technological advancements ultimately aim at the welfare of humans. Having said that, biology itself is the branch of science that not only studies morphology, anatomy, physiology, genetics, and metabolism of living beings but also aims at improving, innovating and carving new niches to bring about fundamental changes in the welfare of humans. Biology and human welfare began right from human civilization. Biology and human welfare are exemplified by the domestication of plants and animals, making of cheese and curd, brewing of alcohol and the list can continue to eternity! Agricultural practices, food processing, and diagnostics have brought socio-cultural changes in human communities. Hence, it is essential for us to understand the very basics of biology and human welfare along with exploring the future possibilities. Therefore, allow yourself to be introduced to the astounding chapter of biology and human welfare where you would get to know various applicable aspects of biology in human welfare.

 

Biology and Human Welfare

 

Introduction to Biology and Human Welfare

From the perspective of NEET biology syllabus, the chapter of biology and human welfare encompass a wide variety of topics that account for an approximate 5% weightage in the NEET exam. Now, here is the point where most of the aspirants make a grave mistake! The weightage does not seem quite lucrative and so the concepts of biology and human welfare are left to be studied for the last moment. You should understand that easy and interesting chapters like biology and human welfare increase the chances for better scoring. Hence, they are not supposed to be ignored. Rather, they should be taken as goody-bag in the syllabus!

The application-based concepts are well defined in the eighth unit of the NCERT textbook for class 12. We shall make it our base of studying and understanding by correlating the various topics of biology and human welfare mentioned in the NEET biology syllabus. 

Notes on Biology and Human Welfare

Let us explore the various topics of the chapter biology and human welfare along with understanding their practical utility and importance from the NEET exam perspective.

1. Human Health and Diseases: Since time immemorial, human health has intrigued the intelligence of philosophers and thinkers. Earlier, health was the component of physical well-being only. The  Greeks like Hippocrates as well as Indian Ayurveda system of medicine asserted health to be the balance of certain ‘humour’ in the body. However, with the advent of scientific discoveries, like the circulation of blood by William Harvey, that establish more than just ‘humour’ balance, these notions changed and health began to expand its horizon beyond physical well being. 

Presently, the World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." As a consequence, the biological improvisations are made with this holistic view of health. Therefore, in order to achieve ‘healthy’ human populations across the globe, it is crucial to realise the threats to health and this is the essence of the chapter human health and diseases. Isn’t fascinating to read such an impactful topic for your NEET preparation?

So, let us see the topics mentioned in this chapter of biology and human welfare:

  • Common diseases in humans:  pathogens and parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm)
  • Basic concepts of immunology: Innate immunity, Acquired immunity,  Active and Passive Immunity, Vaccination and Immunisation, Allergies, Auto Immunity
  • Immune System in the Body
  • AIDS and HIV:  Replication of retrovirus, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Prevention of AIDS, 
  • Cancer: Causes of cancer, Cancer detection and diagnosis, treatment of cancer
  • Drugs and alcohol abuse: Opioids, Cannabinoids, Adolescence and Drug/Alcohol Abuse, Addiction and Dependence, Effects of Drug/Alcohol Abuse, Prevention and Control

Given the nature of topics covered under this chapter of biology and human welfare, it becomes imperative to read and understand these topics not only to score well in the NEET exam but also to gather practical implications in daily life. You can disseminate the word on AIDS, alcohol and drug abuse, etc. to different groups and can be a part of human welfare.

 

Biology and Human Welfare notes

 

2. Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production: As the holistic understanding of health progressed and improved the health quotient in the human population, the life expectancy increased which resulted in pressure over the existing sources of food. Therefore, enhancement of food production also became the component of biology and human welfare. Biological principles as applied to animal husbandry and plant breeding have a major role in our efforts to increase food production. This chapter of biology and human welfare offers un understanding of such techniques. 

Let us understand the make-up of different strategies used for the enhancement of food production:

  • Animal husbandry: Dairy Farm Management, Poultry Farm Management,
  • Animal breeding: Inbreeding, inbreeding depression, Out-breeding, Out-crossing, Cross-breeding, Interspecific hybridization, artificial insemination,  Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET)
  • Apiculture
  • Fisheries
  • Plant breeding: Green revolution, Indian hybrid crops, Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance, Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests, Plant Breeding for Improved Food Quality, 
  • Single-cell protein
  • Tissue culture

You would be glad to find that this chapter of biology and human welfare offers a plethora of specialization programs and jobs! Hence, you would read it through the NEET preparation but can provide career guidance to someone who is interested in the applied field of food enhancement. Remember that the chapter of biology and human welfare is a goody-bag in the syllabus!

 

enhancement of food production

 

3. Microbes in Human Welfare: It is a general perception that microbes are disease-causing organisms. This is in fact true. However, when it comes to the application of biology in human welfare, we have tapped a plethora of microbes for human welfare. This has become such an integral part of human lives that removal of these microbes would dwindle a great proportion of human populations. 

Therefore, this chapter would take you to the world of microbes doing mammoth tasks for human welfare. Let us understand the various topics entailed in this chapter of biology and human welfare:

  • Microbes in household products: lactic acid bacteria, baker’s yeast, fungi
  • Microbes in industrial products: Fermented Beverages, Antibiotics, Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules
  • Microbes in sewage treatment
  • Microbes in production of biogas
  • Microbes as biocontrol agents
  • Microbes as biofertilizers

Hence, an exhaustive account of useful microbes can be understood along with the practical implication. This chapter is one of the captivating chapters that would really gather your attention. This is the all-time recommended chapter for those students who are appearing for class 12 boards for making the annual biology assignments. There is a direct incidence of the practical application associated with this chapter. Therefore, it provides room for innovation as well. 

 

Microbes in Human Welfare


 

Tips for Biology and Human Welfare

  • Read the chapter biology and human welfare with an awareness of its practical implications.
  • Remember the pathogens, disease-outbreak in recent past, concepts of immunity along with newly discovered vaccines, if any.
  • Solve previous years’ questions to gather insight into the pattern of questions.
  • Read the chapter on regular interval to prevent any slip of memory. 
  • Chapter biology and human welfare offer chances to score well. Therefore, do not ignore it until the last months of preparation. 

 

Books to Refer for Biology and Human Welfare

  • The NCERT textbook for class 12
  • A Textbook of CBSE Biology for Class 12 by Sarita Aggarwal
  • Trueman’s Elementary Biology Volume 2

 

Biology Units-wise Notes for Medical Exams

Units No.

Units Name

Unit 1

Diversity in Living World

Unit 2

Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

Unit 3

Cell Structure and Function

Unit 4

Plant Physiology

Unit 5

Human Physiology

Unit 6

Reproduction

Unit 7

Genetics and Evolution 

Unit 9

Biotechnology and Its Applications 

Unit 10

Ecology and Environment 

 

Topics from Biology and Human Welfare

  • Health and Disease ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, AP EAMCET Pharmacy, TS EAMCET Pharmacy, BITSAT Pharmacy, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (12 concepts)
  • Pathogens ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, AP EAMCET Pharmacy, TS EAMCET Pharmacy, BITSAT Pharmacy, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (3 concepts)
  • Parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, AP EAMCET Pharmacy, TS EAMCET Pharmacy, BITSAT Pharmacy, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (33 concepts)
  • Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, AP EAMCET Pharmacy, TS EAMCET Pharmacy, BITSAT Pharmacy, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (36 concepts)
  • Cancer, HIV and AIDS ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, AP EAMCET Pharmacy, TS EAMCET Pharmacy, BITSAT Pharmacy, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (33 concepts)
  • Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, AP EAMCET Pharmacy, TS EAMCET Pharmacy, BITSAT Pharmacy, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (23 concepts)
  • Improvement in food production ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, AP EAMCET Pharmacy, TS EAMCET Pharmacy, BITSAT Pharmacy, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (7 concepts)
  • Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, AP EAMCET Pharmacy, TS EAMCET Pharmacy, BITSAT Pharmacy, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (37 concepts)
  • Apiculture and Animal husbandry ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, AP EAMCET Pharmacy, TS EAMCET Pharmacy, BITSAT Pharmacy, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (35 concepts)
  • Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, AP EAMCET Pharmacy, TS EAMCET Pharmacy, BITSAT Pharmacy, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (49 concepts)

Important Books for Biology and Human Welfare

  • Biology and Human Welfare Book
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