The body is a community made up of its innumerable cells or inhabitants.
- Thomas A. Edison
The third chapter in the syllabus of NEET biology exam is cell structure and function. It is also the third unit in the NCERT textbook for class 11. The content of cell structure and function accounts for approximate 7% weightage for the biology section in the NEET exam. The chapter cell structure and function become highly scoring due to the interesting concepts it offers. Furthermore, the concepts of this chapter come in very handy while preparing the plant tissues, animal tissues as well as reproduction chapters. Therefore, cell structure and function need not be taken lightly as it allows an easy grasp of other important chapters.
After reading the cell structure and function, you will be able to understand the structural details of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells that include:
In order to have an organized study plan, you will require study notes on cell structure and function so that the details of the topics are not missed. Therefore, let us have an in-depth look into the chapter notes of cell structure and function.
1. Cell: The Unit of Life
This topic deals with the structural details of the cell along with its functional aspects. It is the fundamental chapter that builds up the understanding of the cell. As you would finish reading this chapter, you will be able to establish the definition of a cell, the types of cells and various organelles found in a eukaryotic cell, such as-
There is also an exhaustive account of the models of the cell membrane. The fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane is crucial for the NEET exam. The structural, as well as functional details of the cell wall, are also dealt with in the chapter cell structure and function. Hence, a profound reading of this chapter will give you a conceptual buildup of the cell, its structure, its function and different types of cells. Not only the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are differentiated but the differences between a bacterial cell, an animal cell and a plant cell are also well described.
The life initiated with the formation of the cell. However, a cell itself is a composition of various chemicals or polymers that undergo specific chemical reactions in order to make sure that the structural stability and functional continuity of the cell are maintained. Hence, an understanding of cell structure and function is incomplete without knowing the biomolecules.
The biomolecules are defined as the complex polymer and chemicals that are present in the cellular pool. The biomolecules come out to be similar to the chemicals present in the soil. However, the beauty of life lies in the fact that there is a relative abundance of carbon and hydrogen with respect to other elements is higher in any living organism than in earth’s crust. Hence, the biomolecules are organic compounds that perform the chemical reaction to maintain the sustainability of life.
There are four principal forms of biomolecules that are discussed in details:
The monomers of these biomolecules are connected via special glycosidic bonds as:
These are the sources of immense energy when broken by enzymatic action. The chapter biomolecules also deal with primary and secondary metabolites, enzymes and properties of water. Therefore, this chapter is crucial for the understanding of topics such as photosynthesis, respiration, and genetics. You will also come across a similar topic in your chemistry syllabus as well. Hence, one can easily infer the hidden importance this chapter has!
3. Cell Cycle and Cell Division
It is a known fact that every living organism began its life as a single cell. For multicellular organisms, the complexity begins as the number of cells increase. So, what is responsible for increasing the number of cells? The answer lies in this fascinating chapter cell cycle and cell division. The chapter defines the cell cycle and explains the different phases of the cell cycle, that is, interphase and dividing phase. The two basic types of cell division are thoroughly discussed as:
The substages of the cell division, that is, karyokinesis and cytokinesis are also thoroughly discussed. The karyokinesis can be further classified into four substages as follows:
Further, the chapter cell cycle and cell division deal with the significance of mitotic and meiotic cell divisions. Hence, this chapter does not only have individual significance but is equally crucial when it comes to the understanding of concepts of chapters reproduction and genetics. Therefore, you will have to be very attentive while studying this chapter. As you can already see, there will be a requirement of building concepts rather than mugging up the details.
Let us see how you can develop a grip on the concepts of cell structure and function.
The NCERT textbook for class 11
A Textbook of CBSE Biology for Class 11 by Sarita Aggarwal
Trueman’s Elementary Biology Volume 1
Match the following and select the correct answer :
(a) Centriole (i) Infoldings in mitochondria
(b) Chlorophyll (ii) Thylakoids
(c) Cristae (iii) Nucleic acids
(d) Ribozymes (iv) Basal body cilia or flagella
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(iv) (ii) (i) (iii)
(i) (ii) (iv) (iii)
(i) (iii) (ii) (iv)
(iv) (iii) (i) (ii)
A protoplast is a cell:
without cell wall
without plasma membrane
Cell wall is absent in :