Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants  

What is Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

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-Henri Frederic Amiel

Introduction to Structural Organization in Animals and Plants

Structural organization in animals and plants is the second unit in the syllabus of NEET biology. It corresponds to the NCERT textbook of biology for class 11. This unit accounts for an approximate of 10% weightage in NEET exam and is equally important for other medical entrances. Structural organization in animals and plants provides with a detailed description of the morphology and anatomy of both plants and animals. These topics are dealt with under separate chapters to provide a holistic approach to the students. The topics covered under structural organization in animals and plants will be highly advantageous in the upcoming topics of plant physiology and animal physiology. A considerable number of questions are asked from the chapter structural organization in animals. Hence, it is a crucial unit not only due to its weightage but also in developing the understanding of upcoming chapters.

After reading the various chapters of structural organization in animals and plants, you will be able to understand various parts of the flowering plants, the internal structure of plant body and the various tissues along with their functions in the animal system. There is also a comparative discussion of earthworm, cockroach and frog. Due to its informational design, this chapter sometimes becomes difficult to memorize and learn. Therefore, do not approach it with a mugging-up attitude, rather try to develop a conceptual clarity of the structural details. 

Let us have a look at the different chapters within the structural organization in animals and plants such that you could be able to understand the demand of this unit and design your study plan accordingly.

Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

Notes on Structural Organization in Animals and Plants

1. Morphology of Flowering Plants: This chapter presents a detailed analysis of the vegetative and reproductive parts of the flowering plants. The morphological features and their modifications are thoroughly described in here. After reading this chapter, you will be able to develop an understanding of the following:

  • Root system - Taproots, fibrous roots. adventitious roots and modification of tap root and adventitious roots.
  • Shoot system - Stem and leaves along with their modifications.
  • Inflorescences - Racemose and cymose inflorescence along with their types and examples.
  • Flower - Details of the whorls and arrangement of their parts in flower.
  • Fruits - Structure and types of fruits.
  • Seeds - Structure of dicot and monocot seeds.

Morphology of Flowering Plants also includes three angiosperm families for which you will need to study the description. Therein, you will learn the semi-technical description of the families along with floral diagram and floral formula. Morphology of Flowering Plants presents a great lot of examples which might be trickier to remember. Therefore, keep a track of the examples by tabulating them as you read. A multiple read-up of the examples would suffice the task of learning. An analysis of the previous years' question papers of NEET reveals that the questions based on examples are solely taken from the examples mentioned in the NCERT textbook.

Morphology of Flowering Plants

2. Anatomy of Flowering Plants: While the morphology of flowering plants provides with the details of external features of the flowering plants, the anatomy of flowering plants deals with the internal structural details of a plant body. This chapter introduces the tissue systems in the plant body as follows:

  • Epidermal tissue system for protection
  • Vascular tissue system for conduction of food and water
  • Ground tissue system for storage and other related functions.

You will develop an understanding of meristematic tissues, simple and complex permanent tissues and their arrangement in the primary plant body as well as in secondary plant body. There is a detailed description of the secondary growth in plants along with topics such as annuals rings, heartwood, and sapwood. Hence, questions based on diagrams are the features of the chapter anatomy of flowering plants. Therefore, the diagrams of the NCERT textbook need to be thoroughly understood and learned. 

Anatomy of Flowering Plants

3. Structural Organization in Animals: This chapter is entirely based on the animal tissues and anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of cockroach, earthworm and frog. As per the analysis of previous years' papers, it is required to know the system of cockroach, earthworm and frog. Structural organization in animals begins by detailing the four types of animal tissues as follows:

  1. Epithelial tissues: Tissues that provide covering and lining of the spaces.
  2. Connective tissues: Tissues that provide linking and support to other tissues/organs of the body. 
  3. Muscle tissues: Tissues that are contractile and help in movement.
  4. Nervous tissues: Tissues that perceive stimuli and generate responses.

The origin, functions, and locations of these tissues are important from the perspective of NEET exam. The specialized connective tissues of blood and bone are also discussed in here. Therefore, the structural organization in animals is time-taking chapter. However, once you have grasped the concepts of the tissues, you will have an easy time learning the physiological concepts.  

Furthermore, a comparative account of digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive systems of cockroach, earthworm, and frog can be studied without conceptual issue if you have thoroughly understood the animal kingdom in the chapter diversity in the living world. A thorough read-up of NCERT  is sufficient to gather insight into this topic.

Structural Organization in Animals

Tips on Structural Organisation in Plants

  • Start the preparation with reading the NCERT textbook for class 11.
  • Pay special attention to the examples while studying the morphology of flowering plants.
  • Tabulate the examples to revise them repeatedly.
  • Focus on the modifications of plant parts and the subsequent functions they acquire, for instance, prop roots are a modified form of roots for support.
  • Pay special attention to the diagrams while studying the anatomy of flowering plants. 
  • Solve previous years' and sample questions.

 Tips on Structural Organization in Animals

  • Start the read-up with NCERT textbook. However, to get conceptual and diagrammatic clarity, additional books can be referred to.
  • Learn the locations of epithelial tissues, loose connective tissues and dense connective tissues from the NCERT textbook. There is no need to go detailed study of their locations.
  • Only refer to the NCERT textbook for the comparative account of cockroach, earthworm and frog. 
  • Solve as many questions as you can in order to brush up the concepts every now and then.

Books to refer for Structural Organization in Plants and Animals

  • The NCERT textbook for class 11
  • A Textbook of CBSE Biology for Class 11 by Sarita Aggarwal
  • Trueman’s Elementary Biology Volume 1

 

Biology Units-wise Notes for Medical Exams

Units No.

Units Name

Unit 1

Diversity in Living World

Unit 3

Cell Structure and Function

Unit 4

Plant Physiology

Unit 5

Human Physiology

Unit 6

Reproduction

Unit 7

Genetics and Evolution 

Unit 8

Biology and Human Welfare

Unit 9

Biotechnology and Its Applications 

Unit 10

Ecology and Environment 

Topics from Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

  • Morphology and modifications ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (143 concepts)
  • Plant Tissues ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (56 concepts)
  • Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (39 concepts)
  • Animal tissues ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (123 concepts)
  • Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach) ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (103 concepts)
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (43 concepts)
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (35 concepts)
  • Animal Tissues ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (44 concepts)
  • Morphology, Anatomy and Functions of Different Systems of Cockroach ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (10 concepts)
  • Morphology, Anatomy and Functions of Different Systems of Earthworm ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (8 concepts)
  • Morphology, Anatomy and Functions of Different Systems of Frog ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (9 concepts)

Important Books for Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

  • Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants Book
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