Human Physiology  

What is Human Physiology

The syllabus of NEET biology has a conceptually important topic called human physiology. It is the fifth unit in the NCERT textbook of class 11. Human physiology is a highly celebrated chapter owing to the fact that it comes with 12% weightage in NEET exam! Not only that, human physiology has various concepts that are linked with human anatomy, genetics, and reproduction chapters. Hence, it is of utmost importance for a NEET aspirant to develop a smooth and clear understanding of the human physiology. The very feel-good factor associated with human physiology is that it does not offer any mug-up exercise and because you will get to know the functionality and makeup of the organ systems of your body, a continuous connection with the concepts are maintained throughout. Therefore, do not approach the chapter with fear but with enthusiasm that you are going to establish a basic understanding of yourself, which is essential as in the words of Suzy Kassem - “We are all connected. When one arm or foot becomes poisoned, the whole body becomes infected.” 

Human Physiology

As you have been introduced to the term ‘physiology’ earlier while dealing with the plant physiology, similarly, human physiology is the branch of science that deals with the study of the functionality of the organ systems of the human body. The complexity of the human body is understood as well as explored when you enter the world of human physiology. That is the reason it is not studied in one go but is divided into various topics, each correlating to the organ system in the human body. Not only the proper functioning but also the malfunctioning called diseases of various systems have been discussed under human physiology. 

An analysis of the NEET biology syllabus brings relief as the majority of the topics are thoroughly covered within the NCERT textbook for class 11. Hence, we shall now explore the NEET syllabus in correlation with the NCERT textbook unit of human physiology. This will help you to carve out a smooth plan to approach the chapter.

Human Body organ system

 

Notes on Human Physiology

Let us have a look at various topics of human physiology, their content and their essentiality for NEET exam.

1. Digestion and Absorption: No doubt we all understand the utility of eating proper food and the subsequent role of our digestive system in distributing the nutrients to the blood, the topic digestion and absorption of human physiology gives a deeper insight to the same. As you would read this chapter, you will be able to establish a clear picture of

  • Alimentary canal and digestive glands
  • Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones
  • Peristalsis 
  • Digestion, absorption, and assimilation of proteins
  • Digestion, absorption, and assimilation of carbohydrates
  • Digestion, absorption, and assimilation of fats
  • The caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats
  • Egestion
  • Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea

Herein, the concepts of human anatomy will need a brush-up as you would be dealing with serious and mucous membranes, glandular epithelium, connective tissues, etc. Hence, as you can already infer, you are about to have a wonderful insight into your digestive system, that would not only impart a self-awareness but would also help in scoring in the NEET exam. Aren’t such topics like human physiology are a total delight to read?

 

2. Breathing and Exchange of gases: Breathing in and out is such a vital activity that it occurs even if you are not aware of it. Many times you can see yoga instructors telling, in general, to watch out breathing pattern and try controlling the same to come out of depression and stress. One reason for this is hidden in this topic of human physiology! Your breathing is controlled by the involuntary region of the nervous system and an awareness of the same allows a better room for the same. So, an exciting journey to this chapter would tell you about:

  • Respiratory system in humans
  • Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans
  • Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration 
  • Respiratory volumes
  • Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.

Hence, like the digestive system, human physiology chapter offers a holistic understanding of the respiratory system and the whole mechanism that makes it possible for us to breath in oxygen, utilize the oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. The neural control for the same is one of the favourite topics of examiners! So, pay special attention while reading about it.

 

3. Body Fluids and Circulation: There are numerous organs in the human body, all of them are in need of nutrition and removal of excretory wastes; all of them need immunity and medicines in case of malfunction. How is this plethora of organs is attended to? The answer lies in the magnificent fluid connective tissue of blood. While you have already realised the concept of blood tissue in human anatomy, in human physiology you will understand how exactly the flow of blood is achieved and maintained, what is the structure and role of heart, and what is the nature of blood vessels. Not only the blood is explained but the lymph, its formation and network of lymph vessels are also the highlights of this chapter. Therefore, this chapter of human physiology offers:

  • Composition of the blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood
  • Composition of lymph and its function
  • Human circulatory system
  • Structure of the human heart and blood vessels
  • Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation
  • Regulation of cardiac activity
  • Disorders of the circulatory system - Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure

Hence, embrace yourself to the exciting enlightenment about the circulatory system of the human body and its crucial functioning in the human physiology!

 

HEART ANATOMY

 

4. Excretory Products and their Elimination: Each cell in the organs of the human body is performing the life-sustaining metabolic activities. These activities generate energy in the form of ATP (Adenosine Tri Phosphate) along with various types of nitrogenous wastes, namely urea, uric acid, creatinine, etc. These have to be removed from the bloodstream because the cells ultimately barf out the excretory products into the blood. That can happen when the blood is filtered and this majestic process occurs in the major excretory organs kidneys. Apart from that, lungs and skin also act as the excretory organs. Hence, the insights offered in this topic of human physiology are

  • Excretory Products and their elimination
  • Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism
  • Human excretory system - structure and function
  • Urine formation, Osmoregulation
  • Regulation of kidney function-Renin Angiotensin
  • Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus 
  • Role of other organs in excretion
  • Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney. 

 

5. Locomotion and Movement: This chapter of human physiology deals with the muscles and bones. How the human body is capable of showing locomotion along with various types of muscular movements will be understood in this chapter of human physiology. You will read about the following topics here:

  • Types of movement- ciliary, flagellar, muscular 
  • Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction
  • Skeletal system and its functions 
  • Joints 
  • Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia Gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout

 

6. Neural Control and Coordination: Brain is the most enigmatic organ of the human physiology even now. However, many aspects of the neural system have been decoded and are well-explained in this chapter. You will appreciate the following topics in this chapter:

  • Neuron and nerves 
  • The nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system 
  • Generation and conduction of nerve impulse 
  • Reflex action 
  • Sense organs 
  • Elementary structure and function of eye and ear

 

7. Chemical Coordination and Integration: Hormones play a decisive role in the metabolism of the human body and so, they are the key players of the human physiology. The endocrine glands and their hormones along with their functions and disorders are the key takeaways of this chapter of human physiology:

  • Endocrine glands and hormones 
  • Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads 
  • Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea) 
  • Role of hormones as messengers and regulators 
  • Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goitre, exophthalmic goitre, diabetes, Addison’s disease)

 

Tips on Human Physiology

  • Refrain from mugging up the concepts. Try to establish an understanding of concepts for long-term memory.
  • Refer to the NCERT textbook for building up the basics.
  • Solve questions from previous years’ question papers to analyze the pattern.
  • Keep revising for better grip on the concepts.

 

Books for Human Physiology

  • The NCERT textbook for class 11
  • A Textbook of CBSE Biology for Class 11 by Sarita Aggarwal
  • Trueman’s Elementary Biology Volume 1

 

Biology Units-wise Notes for Medical Exams

Units No.

Units Name

Unit 1

Diversity in Living World

Unit 2

Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

Unit 3

Cell Structure and Function

Unit 4

Plant Physiology

Unit 6

Reproduction

Unit 7

Genetics and Evolution 

Unit 8

Biology and Human Welfare

Unit 9

Biotechnology and Its Applications 

Unit 10

Ecology and Environment 

Topics from Human Physiology

  • Digestion and absorption ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (4 concepts)
  • Alimentary canal and digestive glands ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (55 concepts)
  • Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (6 concepts)
  • Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (41 concepts)
  • Egestion ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (1 concepts)
  • Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only) ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (8 concepts)
  • Respiratory system in humans ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (18 concepts)
  • Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (40 concepts)
  • Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (2 concepts)
  • Occupational respiratory disorders ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (1 concepts)
  • Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (48 concepts)
  • Composition of lymph and its function ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (6 concepts)
  • Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (25 concepts)
  • Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (23 concepts)
  • Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (4 concepts)
  • Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and function ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (39 concepts)
  • Urine formation, Osmoregulation ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (19 concepts)
  • Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (13 concepts)
  • Role of other organs in excretion ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (5 concepts)
  • Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (8 concepts)
  • Dialysis and artificial kidney ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (4 concepts)
  • Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (14 concepts)
  • Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (39 concepts)
  • Skeletal system and its functions ; Joints ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (42 concepts)
  • Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (6 concepts)
  • Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (4 concepts)
  • Nervous system in humans-central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (19 concepts)
  • Generation and conduction of nerve impulse ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (7 concepts)
  • Reflex action; Sense organs ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (1 concepts)
  • Elementary structure and function of eye and ear ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (25 concepts)
  • Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (1 concepts)
  • Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (63 concepts)
  • Mechanism of hormone action ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (8 concepts)
  • Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addisons disease) ( NEET, AIIMS MBBS, JIPMER MBBS, KVPY SA, KVPY SB/SX ) (8 concepts)

Important Books for Human Physiology

  • Human Physiology Book
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