i) Discuss the significance/ applications of dipole moment.
(ii) Represent diagrammatically the bond moments and the resultant dipole moment in CO_{2}, NF_{3} and CHCl_{3}.

Answers (1)

(i) The formula of calculating dipole moment is,

Dipole moment (\mu ) = charge(Q) × distance of separation(r)

Dipole moment is expressed in Debye units (D).

Significance of Dipole moment is:

  1. Helps predicting polar and non-polar nature of compounds
  2. Percentage of ionic character can be calculated by the formula:

           % of ionic character = (\mu ) observed × 100/ \mu, ionic

  1. It helps to know the symmetry of the molecule.

          Symmetrical molecules have zero dipole moment, although they have two or more polar bonds. For example,

The dipole moment in case of BeF_{2} is zero. This is because the two equal bond dipoles point in opposite directions and cancel the effect of each other.

(ii) 

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