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Is extra genomic DNA present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes? If yes, indicate their location in both the types of organisms.

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Ans. Yes, extra genomic DNA is present in prokaryotes as well as in eukaryotes.

Extra Genomic DNA in Prokaryotes: In prokaryotes, circular DNA is the plasmid which is used to transfer information from one cell to another. The plasmid is used to track bacterial transformation with foreign DNA. It develops unique phenotype characteristics in the bacteria like the resistance to antibiotics. It also enables the bacterial cell to metabolize nutrients. It also facilitates the conjugation of bacteria. In modern experiments, plasmids are used to develop cloning vectors.

Extra Genomic DNA in Eukaryotes: Extra genomic DNA is present in mitochondria and plastids of eukaryotes. Mitochondrial DNA makes up almost 20000-25000 genes of the total genes in the human body. It has instructions for enzymes secretion and action. Plastids are found in plants that help in its growth by trapping radiation and storing food and other important nutrients for the plant. The DNA in the plastids facilitate the synthesis of protein.Since DNA is present in mitochondria and plastids, they have self-replication abilities and hence, they are semi-autonomous organelles.


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