Isotherms of carbon dioxide gas are shown in figure. Mark a path for changing gas into liquid such that only one phase (i.e. either a gas or liquid) exists at any time during the change. Explain how the temperature, volume and pressure should be changed to carry out the change.

Answers (1)

In the figure above, we can increase the temperature to move from A to F vertically and can reach G by compressing the gas at constant temperature along isotherm, thus, increasing the pressure. Then by lowering the temperature, we can move vertically downwards to D. We get liquid as soon as we cross the point H on isotherm. The substances will remain in one phase if we carry out this process at a critical temperature.  This is called continuity of state between the gaseous and liquid states.

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