In the following questions a statement of assertion (A) followed by a statement of reason (R) is given. Choose the correct option out of the choices given below each question.

Assertion (A) : Nitration of benzene with nitric acid requires the use of concentrated sulphuric acid.
Reason (R) : The mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid and concentrated nitric acid produces the electrophile, NO_{2}^{+} .
(i) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A.
(ii) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(iii) Both A and R are not correct.
(iv) A is not correct but R is correct.

Answers (1)

(i) Both A and R are correct, and R is the correct explanation of A.

Explanation: During nitration, benzene is treated with the nitrating mixture, viz., Conc. HNO_{3} and H_{2}SO_{4}. H_{2}SO_{4} helps in furnishing the electrophile, i.e., NO_{2}^{+}.

H_{2}SO_{4}+HNO_{3}\underset{H_{2}O}{\rightarrow}NO_{2}^{+}+HSO_{3}^{-}

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