Organic Compounds containing Oxygen  

What is Organic Compounds containing Oxygen

This chapter is one of the most important chapters of the complete chemistry syllabus. Alcohols, phenols, and ethers are formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atom by a hydroxyl group(OH) and an alkoxy group(R-O), respectively. These are a very important class of compounds that we see around us every time and use in our daily life. There is one more class of organic compounds i.e, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids. In this section, there are various important reactions that we study like Cannizzaro reaction, aldol condensation, Gattermann-Koch reaction, etc.

There are various important real-life applications that we see in our daily life. Some of them are mentioned below:

  • Alcohols are used to make wine and beer.


  • Ethanol burns as a fuel to form carbon dioxide and water. Using ethanol as a fuel has an advantage of less pollution.
  • Acetone is used as a nail paint remover.

 

Important Topics - Organic Compounds containing Oxygen 

  • Classification
  • Preparation
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Important Questions

 

Overview of the Organic Compounds containing Oxygen 

Preparations

(i) Alcohols

  • From Alkenes: Alkene reacts with water in the presence of acid and forms alcohol. In the case of unsymmetrical alkenes, the alcohol is formed by following MArkovnikov's rule.


Alkenes

 

  • From carbonyl compounds: LiAlH4 is a very strong reducing agent. We use this reagent to reduce carboxylic acids to primary alcohols.


carbonyl compounds

(ii) Phenols

  • From haloarenes: In this reaction, chlorobenzene is used to react with NaOH at high temperature and pressure and sodium phenoxide is formed. This phenoxide is then acidified to produce phenol.


haloarenes

 

  • From cumene: In this reaction, cumene is oxidised in the presence of air and thus converted to cumene hydroperoxide. Now, this hydroperoxide is treated with dilute acid and thus phenol is formed.


cumene

 

(iii) Ethers

  • Dehydration of alcohols: In this reaction, alcohol is dehydrated to ether in the presence of an acid like H2SOat 413K.


Dehydration of alcohols

 

  • Williamson synthesis: In this reaction, phenol is treated with sodium hydroxide and forms sodium phenoxide. This phenoxide is then converted to ether.


Williamson synthesis

Chemical Reactions

  • Dehydration: In this reaction, alcohol is dehydrated in the presence of an acid and form alkene at 443K.
    Dehydration

 

  • Acylation of alcohols: In this reaction, alcohol is treated with an acyl group in the presence of pyridine and form the product as shown below:


Acylation of alcohols

 

Phenols

  • Electrophilic aromatic substitution: Phenol, when treated with dilute HNO3 at low temperature produces ortho and para nitrophenols.
    Electrophilic aromatic substitution

 

  • Kolbe's reaction: In this reaction, phenol is treated with sodium hydroxide and forms phenoxide. This phenoxide is then treated with carbon dioxide and thus forms hydroxybenzoic acid.


Kolbe's reaction

 

  • Reimer-Tiemann reaction: In this reaction, phenol is treated with chloroform in the presence of sodium hydroxide then a CHO group is attached at the ortho position of phenol and thus forms salicylaldehyde.


Reimer-Tiemann Reaction

 

Ethers

  • Cleavage of C-O bond in ethers: In this reaction, ether is treated with hydrogen iodide and thus forms the alcohol and tertiary halide.


Cleavage of C-O bond in ethers

 

  • Friedel-Crafts reaction: In these reactions, anisole is treated with alkyl and acyl groups and thus the alkyl and acyl groups are attached at the ortho and para positions as shown in the reaction. This reaction occurs in the presence of catalysts known as anhydrous aluminum chloride 
    Friedel-Crafts reaction

     
  • Nitration: In this reaction, anisole is treated with a mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid and nitric acid and thus produces a mixture of ortho and para nitroanisole.


Nitration

 

ALDEHYDES KETONES AND CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

Preparation:

Aldehydes

  • From acyl Chloride: In this reaction, acyl chloride is treated with hydrogen in the presence of palladium-barium sulphate as a catalyst. This reaction is also known as 'Rosenmund reduction'.

        acyl Chloride      

  • Gatterman - Koch reaction: In this reaction, benzene is treated with carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride and thus the product formed is benzaldehyde. This reaction is also known as Gatterman-Koch reaction.

        Gatterman - Koch reaction        

Ketones

  • From Nitriles: The nitrile is treated with the Grignard reagent and the product formed is a ketone.

 

         Nitriles

 

  • Friedel-Crafts Acylation reaction: In this reaction, benzene or substituted benzene is treated with an acyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride and a ketone is formed as a product. This reaction is also known as Friedel-Crafts Acylation reaction.

         Friedel-Crafts Acylation reaction  

 

Carboxylic Acids

  • From primary alcohols: Primary alcohols are oxidised to corresponding carboxylic acids in the presence of some oxidising agents such as alkaline KMnO4.

 

          primary alcohols

 

  • From Esters: Acidic hydrolysis of esters gives corresponding carboxylic acids as shown in the reaction below.

 

         Esters       

 

Chemical Reactions

  • Clemenson’s Reduction: In this reaction, aldehydes or ketones are treated with zinc amalgam and concentrated hydrochloric acid. Thus, the carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones is reduced to CH2. This reaction is also known as Clemenson’s Reduction:


Clemenson’s Reduction       

 

  • Intermolecular Aldol Condensation: In this reaction, two different aldehyde compounds are reacted with each other in the presence of sodium hydroxide and the different products are formed as shown in the reaction.

 

        Intermolecular Aldol Condensation

 

  • Intramolecular Aldol Condensation: In this reaction, the compound reacts within itself in the presence of a base as shown in the reaction.

 

        Intramolecular Aldol Condensation 

 

  • Intermolecular Cannizzaro reaction: In this reaction, two aldehyde compounds react with each other in the presence of sodium hydroxide and produce alcohol and a carboxylic acid salt.

 

        Intermolecular Cannizzaro reaction

 

  • Benzoin Condensation: This is a condensation reaction. It occurs between two aromatic aldehydes and produces an acyloin.

        Benzoin Condensation

 

Carboxylic Acids:

  • Reduction: In this reaction, carboxylic acids are reduced to amides in the presence of ammonia.

 

       Reduction    

 

  • Decarboxylation: In this reaction, carboxylic acids are reduced to corresponding alcohols in the presence of LiAlH4. These alcohols can be further reduced to hydrocarbons when their sodium salts are heated with sodalime.

 

        Decarboxylation

 

  • Electrophilic Substitution: Aromatic carboxylic acids undergo electrophilic substitution reaction. In these reactions, the carboxyl group acts as a meta directing group.

 

        Electrophilic Substitution

 

How to prepare for Organic compounds containing oxygen?

  • This chapter is part of organic chemistry. It is completely theory-based. You are not supposed to memorize any formula and numerical practice for getting the good hold on this chapter. All you just need to remember is reaction mechanisms and important reactions.

  • For this chapter, first, you must have your basic concepts completely clear that you can learn from the "Some basic principles of Organic Chemistry". For this, you must go through Unit 12 of the NCERT book 11th class part II thoroughly.

  • In the nutshell, it can be said that although this chapter is lengthier than other chapters, it is a very simple and straightforward one. So always say a "Big YES" to this chapter.

 

Prescribed Books

For this chapter, first, the NCERT book is best for initial level preparation as well as for board exams. Now, after this, if you want to prepare for competitive exams like JEE and NEET, then these are the best books for you - O.P Tandon and R.K Gupta by Arihant publication. Meanwhile, in the preparation, you must continuously give the mock tests for the depth of knowledge. Our platform will help you to provide with the variety of questions for deeper knowledge with the help of videos, articles and mock tests.

 

Chemistry Chapter- wise Notes for Engineering and Medical Exams

Chapters No.

Chapters Name

Chapter 1

Some basic concepts in chemistry

Chapter 2

States of matter

Chapter 3

Atomic Structure

Chapter 4

Solutions

Chapter 5

Chemical Thermodynamics

Chapter 6

Equilibrium

Chapter 7

Redox Reaction and Electrochemistry

Chapter 8

Chemical kinetics

Chapter 9

Surface Chemistry

Chapter 10

General Principle and processes of Isolation of metals

Chapter 11

Classification of Elements and Periodic table

Chapter 12 

Hydrogen

Chapter 13

p- block Elements

Chapter 14 

s-block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)

Chapter 15 

Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

Chapter 16

d- and f- BLOCK ELEMENTS

Chapter 17

Coordination Compounds

Chapter 18 

Environmental Chemistry

Chapter 19

Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds

Chapter 20

Some Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry

Chapter 21

Hydrocarbons

Chapter 22

Organic Compounds containing Halogens

Chapter 24

Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

Chapter 25

Polymers

Chapter 26

Biomolecules

Chapter 27

Chemistry in Everyday Life

Chapter 28

Principles Related to Practical Chemistry

Topics from Organic Compounds containing Oxygen

  • Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration ( JEE Main, SRMJEEE, MET, GUJCET Pharmacy ) (36 concepts)
  • reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen) ( JEE Main, SRMJEEE, MET, GUJCET Pharmacy ) (9 concepts)
  • Grignard reagent, oxidation ( JEE Main, SRMJEEE, MET, GUJCET Pharmacy ) (18 concepts)
  • General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses. ( JEE Main, SRMJEEE, MET, GUJCET Pharmacy ) (132 concepts)
  • Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reitner - Tiemann reaction. ( JEE Main, SRMJEEE, MET, GUJCET Pharmacy ) (24 concepts)
  • Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group;Nucleophilic addition to >C=0 group, ( JEE Main, SRMJEEE, MET, GUJCET Pharmacy ) (38 concepts)
  • Ethers: Structure. ( JEE Main, SRMJEEE, MET, GUJCET Pharmacy ) (15 concepts)
  • Important reactions such as - Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH, and its derivatives) ( JEE Main, SRMJEEE, MET, GUJCET Pharmacy ) (3 concepts)
  • relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones ( JEE Main, SRMJEEE, MET, GUJCET Pharmacy ) (42 concepts)
  • aldol condensation ( JEE Main, SRMJEEE, MET, GUJCET Pharmacy ) (15 concepts)
  • Hatoform reaction ( JEE Main, SRMJEEE, MET, GUJCET Pharmacy ) (3 concepts)
  • Cannizzaro reaction ( JEE Main, SRMJEEE, MET, GUJCET Pharmacy ) (3 concepts)
  • CARBOXYLIC ACIDS: Acidic strength and factors affecting it. ( JEE Main, SRMJEEE, MET, GUJCET Pharmacy ) (40 concepts)

Important Books for Organic Compounds containing Oxygen

  • Organic Compounds containing Oxygen Book
  • Organic Compounds containing Oxygen Book
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