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 Describe various stem modifications associated with food storage, climbing and protection.

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The various stem modifications that are associated with food storage climbing, and protection are as follows: -   

  • For storage of food, underground stems of ginger, turmeric, potato, and colocasia are modified. These stems also perform the function of organs of perennation that helps get over unfavourable growth conditions.
  • Developed from axillary buds, stem tendrils are dare spirally coiled and are slender which helps the plants to climb. Some examples include grapevines, pumpkins, cucumber, and watermelon etc.

It is also possible for axillary buds of the stems to be modified into straight, woody and pointed thorns. Some of the famous examples being Citrus, Bougainvillea. Thorns help to protect the plants from animals.

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